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Ch.11 Notes.doc

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Ch 11 Intelligence and ThinkingIntelligence general term used to refer to persons ability to learn and remember information to recognize concepts and their relations and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive wayoDifferential approachapproach to study of intelligence that involves creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples knowledge and abilities to solve problems ie tests that ask people to define words explain proverbsoDevelopmental approachapproach to study of intelligence based on way children learn to perceive manipulate and think about world ie PiagetoInformation processing approachapproach to study of intelligence that focus on types of skills people use to think and solve problemsTHEORIES OF INTELLIGENCEpeople vary in many waysabilities to learn and use words to solve arithmetic problems perceive and remember spatial infodifferential approaches assume we can best investigate nature of intelligence by studying ways in which people differ on tests of intellectual abilitiesIQ scores single score does not mean intelligence is single general characteristicAQ score athletic quotientsum of all measurements of athletic tasks ie jump run catch not useful in prediction who would be better gymnast skier swimmer bc athletic ability consists of variety of skillsand different sports require different combos of skillsSome intellectual abilities are completely independent of one another Spearmans Two Factor Theoryproposed that a persons performance on test of intellectual ability is determined by g factor and s factorg factor 3 qualitative principles of cognitionoapprehension of experienceoeduction of relationsoeduction of correlatesgfactora factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks sfactorfactor of intelligence that is specific to particular taskfactor analysis statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of testsempirical evidence form Spearmans 2 Factor Theory comes from correlations among various tests of particular intellectual abilities110 different tests of intellectual abilityoEach test measures separate independent ability scores these people make on any one test will be unrelated to scores on any otheroCorrelations on tests will be approx zerooIf tests measure abilities that are simply manifestations of single trait scores will be perfectly relatedoIntercorrelations will be close to 10usually range from 03 to 07Spearman concluded that general factor g accounted fro moderate correlations among different tests of abilityPersons score on particular test depends on 2 things persons specific ability s on a particular test and hisher level of g factor general reasoning abilityEvidence form Factor Analysispermits researchers to identify underlying commonalities among groups of testsin intelligence tests common factors would be particular abilities that affect peoples performance on more than one testsuppose group of people take several different tests of intellectual abilityif each persons scores on several of these tests correlate well with one another we conclude that the tests measure some other factorfactor analysis determines which set of tests form groupsWechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAISFactor loadingslike correlation coefficients in that they express degree to which particular test is related to particular factorFactor analysis cannot provide theory of intelligenceThurstone performed factor analysis on college students and extracted 7 factorsoVerbal comprehensionoVerbal fluencyoNumberoSpatial visualizationoMemoryoReasoningoPerceptual speedCattell fluid intelligence gfculturefree tasks measure ability to see patterns in repeating series of items closely related to persons native capacity for intellectual performance potential ability to learn and solve problemscasual learningCrystallized intelligence gctasks that require people to have acquired information from their culture such as vocab and info learned from school what person has accomplished through use of hisher fluid intelligenceschooltype learningFluid intelligence supplies native ability whereas experience wlanguage and exposure to books school develop crystallized intelligencegc depends of gf2
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