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Ch.12 Notes.doc

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Ch12 Lifespan DevelopmentPRENATAL DEVELOPMENTprenatal period the 9 months bw conception and birthThis period is divided into 3 developmental stages the zygotic the embryonic and fetalStages of Prenatal Developmentunion of ovum egg and sperm is conceptionstarting pt for prenatal developmentzygote stagefirst stage of prenatal development during which zygote divides many times and internal organs begin to form 2 weeksthis single cell divides many times and internal organs begin to formfirst week100 cellsone layer for skin hair nervous system and sensory organs and another for digestive and respiratory systems and glandsthird layer of cells will eventually develop into muscles and circulatory and excretory systemsembryonic stagesecond stage of prenatal development beginning 2 weeks and ending about eight weeks after conception during which heart begins to beat brain starts to function and most major body structures begin to formend of this stagearms hands fingers legs toes shoulders head and eyes are discernibleteratogens substances agents and events that cause birth defectsembryo is most susceptible to these chemicals during this stagebeginning of sexual development occurs during embryonic stagerd23 chromosome determines sexfemale contributes X whereas male contributes X or YMale XY Female XXAndrogensprimary class of sex hormones in malesMost important androgen is testosteronethey bring about development of male internal sex organs penis and scrotumDevelopment of female sex organsovaries uterus vagina and labia occur naturallydoes not need to be stimulated by hormonerdthFetal stage 3 and 4 stage of prenatal development which lasts for about 7 months beginning with appearance of bone tissue and ending with birthThreats to Normal Prenatal Developmentmost important is mothers dietfetuss only source of nutritionif mother is malnourished fetuss nervous system develops abnormally and intellectual deficits may resultcertain antibiotics especially in large quantities over long periods can produce fetal defects ie tetracycline can cause irregularities in bones and discolouration of teeth1also cigarette smokingcarbon monoxide in cigarette smoke reduces supply of oxygen to fetusreduced oxygen levels are particularly harmful to fetus during last half of pregnancy when fetus is developing most rapidlycan increase miscarriages lowbirth weight increase chance of premature birth and Caesarean sectionmothers using cocaine during pregnancylowbirth weight premature birth smaller than normal head circumference also interferes with neural developmentalcoholpre and postnatal growth deficits deformation of eyes and mouth low brain mass heart deformation fetal alcohol syndrome intellectual development falls short of other childrenPHYSICAL AND PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY AND CHILDHOODMotor Developmentbabys reflexessucking rooting and swallowing are most important responsesmaturation any relatively stable change in thought behaviour or physical growth that is due to aging process and not to experiencedevelopment of motor skills requires 2 ingredients maturation of childs nervous system and practicephysical development of nervous system depends on babys movements while interacting with environmentPerceptual Developmentnewborns indicate taste preferences by facial expressing and by choosing to swallow of not swallow different liquidsnewborns prefer odour of mothers breast than to other womencan recognize and prefer mothers voicePerception Patternsbabies not perceiving complete shapes their scanning strategy is limited to fixations on few parts of object at which they are looking prefer to look at stimuli that resembles human facePerception of Spacevisual cliffability to perceive 3dimensional space most babies would not crawl over glass shelf for fear of falling2
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