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HALF OF Chapter 14: Personality (MIDTERM)

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John Bassili

Chapter 14: Psychology Personality is a particular pattern of behaviour an thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from another Research on human personality requires two kinds of effort: 1. Identifying personality characteristics 2. Determining the variables that produce and control them Trait Theories of Personality Personality Types and Traits The earliest known explanation for individual differences in personality was proposed by the Greek physician Hippocrates in the fourth century B.C.E and refined by his successor Galen in the second century C.E. They believed that: o The body contained four fluids: 1. Yellow bile: choleric people were bad tempered and irritable 2. Black bile: melancholic people had gloomy and pessimistic tempers 3. Phlegm: phlegmatic people were sluggish, calm, and unexcitable 4. Blood: sanguine people were cheerful and passionate Personality types: different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences Individual differences in personality are of different degree, not the kind of difference. The degree to which an individual expresses a particular personality trait Personality trait is an enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behaviour in different situations Trait: dimension on which people differ along a wide range of values o Personality traits are not simply patterns of behaviour; they are factors that underlie these patterns and are responsible for them o Out personality traits are developed and reside in our brain
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