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Chapter notes; Final

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Oren Amitay

The code: green= definition purple=person blue=some general theme You will now recite I LOVE JENNA WITH ALL MY HEART Please try not to share Psychology Chapter Notes Chapter 14 personality Personality: a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking prevailing across time and situations that differentiates one person from another Trait theories Hippocrates first explanation of traits o Had to do with predominance of the 4 humours in the body Chloric increase of yellow bile tempered and irritable Melancholic increase of black bile gloomy and pessimistic Phlematic increase of phlem sluggish and calm Sanguine increase of blood cheerful and passionate Personality types: different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences o The idea that people can be assigned to distinct categories is rejected today by most investigators Personality trait: an enduring personality characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behaviour in a variety of situations Gordon Allport o Looked for words in a dictionary that described personality o Found about 18 000 o Believe people with particular trait react similarly across situations because feel unique sense of similarity that guides feelings 1 Catell: sixteen personality factors o Did factor analysis on allport and found 16 different personality traits Eysenck: three factors o Did further factor analysis 3 main factors extroversion(opposite: introversion),neuroticism (opposite: emotional stability), psychoticism (opposite: self control) Extroversion: the tendency to seek the company of other people, to be spontaneous and to engage in conversation and other social behaviours with them Introversion: the tendency to avoid the company of other people to be inhibited and cautious, shyness Neuroticism: the tendency to be anxious, worried and full of guilt Emotional stability: the tendency to be relaxed and at peace with oneself Psychoticism: the tendency to be aggressive, egocentric and antisocial. Self control: the tendency to be kind, considerate and obedient of laws. The 5 factor model o A theory stating that personality is composed of 5 primary dimensions, neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and consciousness o Neuroticism, extraversion , and openness personality inventory (NEO-PI-R): the instrument used to measure the elements described in the five factor model Psychobiological approach Heritability of personality traits 2 o Many studies have shown some personality traits are highly heritable o Identical twins are more likely to like each other than fraternal (concordance) o Zuckerman: heritability of extroversion 70%, psychoticism 59%, neuroticism 48% o If family environment played a significant part, twins raised together should be more similar than if they were raised apart WERE NOT! 2 possible explanations family environments could have been more similar for identical twins or could have been perceived as different for fraternal twins o Brain mechanisms involved in personality o Zuckerman: personality dimensions of extraversion determined by neural systems o Kagan: shyness could have a biological basis The social learning approach The idea that both consequences of behaviour and an individuals beliefs about those consequences determine behaviour. Expectancy: the belief that a certain consequence will follow a certain action Observative learning: learning through observing the kinds of consequences others (called models) experience as a result of their behaviour o Learn vicariously Bandura: self efficacy o Reciprocal determination: the idea that behaviour, environment and person variables interact to determine personality Everything affects everything o Self efficacy: people beliefs about how well or how badly they will perform Seligman & schuluman: found people who find something positive in less desirable circumstances are generally more successful than those who view it negatively 3 Walter Michel: personality learned through interaction with environment o Role of cognition o Michel argues that individual different in cognition or person variables account for differences in personality o Personal variables: individual differences in cognition, which according to Michel, include competencies encoding strategies, personal constructs, expectancies, subjective values, self regulatory systems and plans. Competencies: different skills, capacities perform ones that were reinforced earlier Encoding strategies and personal constructs: way we process depends on how were perceive the situation Expectancies: what we expect affects behaviour Subjective values: the degree to which we value certain reinforcers over others influence our behaviours Self regulatory systems: self punishment and self reinforcement Julien rotter: locus of control o Locus of control: an individuals belief that the consequences of his or her actions are controlled by internal personal variables or by external environmental variables Social learning theorists put more emphasis on environmental traits o Michel says party for funeral, vs. birthday situation is important in determining extroversion The psychodynamic approach Psychodynamic: a term used to describe the Freudian notion that the mind is in a state of conflict among instincts, reason and conscience Sigmund Freud: ID EGO SUPEREGO 4
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