Study Guides (238,613)
Canada (115,253)
Psychology (1,813)
PSYA02H3 (160)

PSYA02 midterm notes.docx

29 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Jordan Bel

Chapter 10- Language Speech and comprehension words have meanings (semantics) arranged into sentences that follow specific rules (syntax) Reading accomplished by whole word recognition and by decoding the sounds that are represented by letters and groups of letters brain damage can produce dyslexias- disputes 1 or 2 of the processes (may involve abnormal development of parts of the left hemisphere) psycholinguistics- branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behavior- more concerned with human cognition than particular rules that describe language (ex. interested in how child acquire language) Speech and comprehension perception of speech speech does not come to us as a series of individual words; we must extract the words from a stream of speech recognition of speech sounds the auditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselves fMRL scans found that some regions of the brain responded more when people heard human vocalizations (both speech and non) than when they heard only natural sounds. regions in which there was a large difference were located in the temporal lobe, on the auditory cortex. brains reaction to natural speech/ speech scrambled in frequency- auditory area on the left hemisphere showed greater contrast in response- suggests that when it comes to analyzing the detailed information of speech, the left hemisphere plays a larger role phonemes- elements of speech- smallest units of sound that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word one distinction that we can detect- voice-onset time, the delay between the initial sound of a consonant and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords. voicing the vibration of your vocal cords. phonemic discriminations begin with auditory processing of the sensory differences, and this occurs in both hemispheres. h/e regions of the left auditory cortex seem to specialize in recognizing the special aspects of speech phonemes are combined to form morphemes which are the smallest units of meaning in language free morpheme- stand alone and still have meaning. (fast) bound morphemes cannot stand on their own and must be attached to other morphemes to provide meaning (est) Recognition of words in continuous speech: the important of learning and context we are able to recognize the sounds due to the context- context affects the perception of words through top-down processing Understanding the meaning of speech syntax-all languages have a syntax/ grammar. the follow certain principles (syntactical rules) for combining words. fMRL studies have shown that as syntax becomes more complex or ambiguous, our brains become more active. memories- cannot be explained (implicit memories) can be explained (explicit memories)- syntactical rules are learned implicitly. learning syntax and word meaning appears to involve different types of memory- and different brain mechanisms syntactical cues: signaled by word order, word class(grammatical categories (noun etc.)), function (preposition, article,)and content words, affixes( sound or group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word (prefix) or to its end (suffix), word meanings(semantics), and prosody (use of stress, rhythm, and changes in pitch that accompany speech. Relation Between Semantics and Syntax Noam Chompsky (linguist)- newly formed sentences are represented in the brain in terms of their meaning (deep structure)- represents the kernel of what the person intended to say. in order to say the sentence, the brain must transform the deep structure into the appropriate surface structure (the particular form the sentence takes) conduction aphasia- language disorder, difficulty repeating words and phrases, the deep structure, but not surface structure, of other peoples speech. Knowledge of the World comprehension of speech also involves knowledge about the world and about particular situations that we may encounter- this knowledge is organized into scripts, which specify various kinds of events and interactions that people have witnessed or have learned about from others. Brain Mechanisms of Verbal Behavior studies of people with brain damage and PET studies of people engaged in verbal behavior suggest that mechanisms involved in perceiving, comprehending, and producing speech are located in different areas of the cerebral cortex. Speech Production: Evidence from Brocas Aphasia to produce meaningful speech, we must convert perceptions, memories, and thoughts into speech. the neural mechanisms that control speech production appear to be located in the frontal lobes. damage to a region of the motor association cortex in the left frontal lobe (Brocas area) disrupts the ability to speak: it causes Brocas aphasia, a language disorder characterized by slow, laborious, non-fluent speech lesions that produce BA msu be centered in the vicinity of Ba- h/e damage restricted to tje cortex of Ba does not appear to produce BA- the damage must extend to surrounding regions of the frontal lobe and to the underlying subcortical white matter wernike- suggested that Ba contains motor memories- memories of the sequences of muscle movements that are needed to articulate words the mechanisms that control these movements do not rely only on the sounds that we produce when we speak, but also adjust to somatosensory feedback. damage to Ba often produces agrammatism: loss of the ability to produce or comprehend speech that employs complex syntactical rules (ex rarely use function words or grammatical markers) they seem to understand everything that is said to them, irritated and annoyed by their inability to express their thoughts well, and often make gestures- but comprehension not normal (word order experiment(pictures))- showed inability to use grammatical information- word order, to decode the meaning of a sentence, if the grammar is not understood, neither is the sentence all patients had damage in an area deep within the frontal contex, region called insula. Speech Comprehension recognition is the first step in comprehension neeves of memories of sequences of counds- accomplished by neural circuits in the upper part of the left temporal lobe (wernikes area) brain damage in the left hemisphere that invades wernikes area and temportal and pariental lobes- Wernikes Aphasia symptoms- poor speech comprehension and meaningless speech (h/e seems melodic/ grammatical) receptive aphasia- auditory association cortex and comprehension deficit lose- recognition of spoken words, comprehension of the meaning of words, ability to convert thoughts into words. pure word deafness- disorder of auditory word recognition, uncontaminated by other problems islolation aphasia- inability to comprehend speech or to produce meaningful speech accompanied by the ability to repeat speech and learn new sequences of words. Brocias Aphasia- low activity in lower left frontal lobe (PET) Wernikes Aphasia- low activity in the temporal/ pariental area of the brain meaning of a word (its semantics)- is defined by particular memories associated with it Reading our eyes make rapid jumps (saccades) as we scan a scene- also when we read we dont perceive things while our eyes are actually moving but during the brief fixations that occur during saccades readers have 2 basic ways to recognize words- phonetic and whole-word recognition o 1. decoding of the sounds that letters or groups of letters make o 2. readings by recognizing a word as a whole phonology- laws of sound- relation b/w letters and the sounds they represent in a particular language Dyslexia- faulty reading- damage to the left pariental lobe or left temporal lobe surface dyslexia- deficit in whole- word reading phonological dyslexia-they can read by whole-word method but cannot sound out words direct dyslexia- can read words aloud even though they cannot understand the words they are saying developmental dyslexia- from childhood- occur in families (genetic) semantic priming- gives us some hints a/b the nature of activation of memories triggered by the perception of words or phrases. childs brain contains language acquisition device- embodies rules of universal grammar o 1. make hypothesis a/b grammar o 2. innate language acquisition o 3. device makes reinforcement unnecessary o 4. critical period for learning language o language learning- Brocas area language acquisition- matter of becoming less discriminating of speech sounds- when they dont form part of ones native language
More Less

Related notes for PSYA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.