Chapter 14-18 part 2.docx

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Steve Joordens

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Chapter 1418Psychodynamic a term used to describe the Freudian notion that the mind is in a state of conflict among instincts reason and conscience Freud said that all human behaviouris motivated by instinctual drives which when activated supply psychic energy Believed that instinctual drives are triggered by events in a persons lifeUnconscious the inaccessible part of the mindUsed metaphor of an iceberg to describe mindOperations of the id are completely unconsciousId contains the libido which is the primary source of instinctual motivation for all psychic forces Pleasure principle the rule that the id obeys obtain immediate gratification whatever form it may takeId is source of uncivilized and ultimately harmful behaviour sometimesThe ego is the thinking planning and protective self it controls and integrates behaviourEgo is driven by the reality principle the tendency to satisfy the ids demands realistically which almost always involves compromising the demands of the id and superego The superego is subdivided into the conscience and the egoideal The conscience is the internalization of the rules and restrictions of societyThe egoideal is the internalization of what society values and what the person will strive to achieveConflict in mind can begin with the sexual instinctual drive or the aggressive one To Freud dreams were motivated by repressed wishes and urgesFreud believed that the manifest content of a dream its actual story line is only a disguised version of its latent content its hidden message which is produced by the unconscious Free association a method of Freudian analysis in which an individual is asked to relax clear his or her mind of current thoughts and then report all thoughts images perceptions and feelings that come to mind Ego contains defense mechanismsmental systems that become active whenever unconscious instinctual drives of the id come into conflict with internalized prohibitions of the superegoSix most frequently used defense mechanismstable 143 page 455 for examples 1 repression the minds active attempt to prevent memories of traumatic experiences from reaching conscious awareness 2 reaction formation replacing an anxietyprovoking idea with its opposite 3 projection denial of ones unacceptable feelings and desires and finding them in others 4 sublimation channeling psychic energy from an unacceptable drive into a more acceptable one 5 rationalization creating an acceptable reason for a behaviour that is actually performed for a less acceptable reason 6 conversion the manifestation of a psychic conflict in terms of physical symptomsPsychosexual stages of developmentstages that involve seeking pleasure from specific parts of the body called erogenous zonesfixation the continued attachment of psychic energy to an erogenous zone due to incomplete passage through one of the psychosexual stagesoral stage the first of Freuds psychosexual stages during which the mouth is the major erogenous zone due to reduction of the hunger driveanal stage the second of Freuds psychosexual stages during which the primary ergonous zone is the anus die to pleasure derived from vacating a full bowelphallic stage the third psychosexual stage During this stage the primary erogenous zone is the gential area and pleasure erives from both direct genital stimulation and general physical contactFreud believed that boys unconsciously fear being punished by their fathers over their desire for their mother including the ultimate punishment castrationOedipus complex boys attachment to mother stuffElectra complex girls attachment to father stuff father has penis but girl doesnt so that makes her closer to him cuz of the part she doesnt have sConflict for both girls and boys is resolved through a process called identification This is when kids turn to their same sex parents and imitate them and idolize them This is the initial source of the superego developmentlatency period the period between the phallic and genital stage during which sexual urges are submerged Genital stage the final of Freuds psychosexual stages from puberty through adolescence During this stage the adolescent develops adult sexual desiresCarl Jung Alfred Adler Karen Horney Eric Erikson and Melanie Klein are influencial on elaborating the psychodynamic theoryCarl Jung developed his own version of the psychodynamic theory that deemphasized the importance of sexualityCollective unconscious according to Jung the part of the unconscious that contains memories and ideas inherited from our ancestors over the course of evolutionArchetypes Universal thought forms and patterns that Jung believed resided in the collective unconscious Alfred Adler said the feeling of inferiority played a key role in personality developmentStriving for superiority the motivation to achieve ones potential Adler argued that striving for superiority is born from out need to compensate for our inferiority He said striving for superiority is also influenced by social interestKaren Horney said that individuals suffer from basic anxiety caused by insecurities in relationshipsShe said individual has three options moving towards others selfefficacy solution moving against others selfexpansive solution and moving away from others These are called basic orientations Eric Erikson emphasized social aspects of personality development rather than biologicalHas a theory of lifelong developmentObjectrelations theory the theory that personality is the reflection of relationships that the individual establishes with others as an infant Melanie KleinHumanistic approach an approach to the study of personality in which emphasis is placed on the positive fulfilling aspects of lifeSelf actualization the realization of ones true intellectual and emotional potentialAccording to Maslow human motivation is based on a hierarchy of needsFigure 149 page 461 IMPORTANTConditions of worth conditions that others place on us for receiving their positive regard
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