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Midterm Notes Chapter 13.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Midterm Notes Chapter 13Motivation and Emotion Motivation general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature of strength and persistence of an individuals behaviour This chapter focuses on eating sexual behaviour and aggression as these are important to survival of individual and species WHAT IS MOTIVATION Motivation is proactive and reactive Biological Needs Complex organisms possess physiological mechanisms that detect deficits or imbalances associated with these needs and related Regulatory behaviours behaviour that tends to bring physiological conditions back to normal thus restoring the condition of homeostasis Homeostasis process by which important physiological characteristics are regulated so that they remain at their optimum level Regulatory system has 4 essential features System variable variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism for example temperature in a heating system Set point optimum value of the system variable in a regulatory mechanism Detector In a regulatory process a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its set point Correctional Mechanism the mechanism that is capable of restoring the system variable to the set point Negative Feedback process where the effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate that actionRegulatory systems are characterized by negative feedback loops Earliest systematic attempt to explain nature of motivation and reinforcement was Drive reduction hypothesis hypothesis that a drive resulting from physiological need or deprivation produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behavioursReduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcing Example Hunger Hunger serves as a drive condition caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium that energizes an organisms behaviour The act of eating reduces hunger and this drive reduction is reinforcing Not all dives are based on homeostasis example o sex drive we can survive without sex but the drive is certainly motivating and is reinforcing Also organisms in a featureless environment will be motivated to seek for something new This hypothesis falls in disfavor for two primary reasons drive is almost impossible to measureif we examine our own behaviour we find many events we experience are also exciting or drive increasing roller coasters is fun not because it reduces drive Generally experiences we want to repeat increase not decrease our level of arousaldrive Physiology of Reinforcement Olds and Milnershowed electrical stimulation of brain can be reinforcing to rats found that it is reinforcing because it activates same system that is activated by natural reinforcers Essential part of reinforcement system consists of neurons that release dopamine as transmitter substance OptimumLevel Theory In some cases motivation can be avoidance of exciting stimuliSome psychologists proposed optimumlevel hypothesis of reinforcement and punishment hypothesis that all organisms will perform behaviour that restores the level of arousal to an optimum level Berlyne proposed two forms of exploration related to arousalDiversive explorationresponse to under stimulation and Specific Exploration response to over stimulation
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