Chapter 16.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 16 Lifestyle, stress and health Cultural evolution- a cultures adaptive change to recurrent environmental pressures, driven by psychological forces Lifestyle- (cultural evolution shapes this) the aggregate behavior of a person the way in which a person leads his or her life – hobbies, decisions Cultural evolution;  Changed our standard of living  Produced threats to our health and safety- (killing by cars and trucks)  Increased pollution- factories from food  Lessened life span- obesity and alcoholism  Result of law of effect- favorable traits are redone vs. unfavorable ones Healthy and Unhealthy Lifestyles - Evolution of food more fat, less fibre Coronary hearty disease (CHD)- the narrowing of blood vessels that supply nutrients to the heart Serum cholesterol- a chemical that naturally occurs in the bloodstream, it serves as a detoxifier 2 forms; LDL (low density lipoprotein) – promotes the formation of atherosclerotic plaques HDL (high density lipoprotein) – protects against coronary heart disease Aerobic exercises- improves our cardiovascular, expends considerable energy increases blood flow and respiration, thereby stimulates and strengthens the heart and lungs and increases the body’s efficient use of oxygen Cigarettes- risks to premature death, bronchitis, emphysema and strokes, passive smoking- inhalation of other people cigarettes, tolerance- the neurons in the CNS respond progressively less and less to the presence of a drug, withdrawal symptoms- uncomfortable physical conditions such as tremors and anxiety , psychological dependence- a craving for the drug for its pleasurable effects, transdermal nicotine stripes- a band age-life patch that allows nicotine to be absorbed through the skin Alcoholic beverages- alcoholism- and addiction to ethanol, the psychoactive agent beverages, delirium tremens- suffered by heavy drinkers – pattern of withdrawl symptoms that includes trembling, irritability, hallucinations sometimes addiction leads to conclusions or death, FAS- alcohol crosses the placental barrier and enters the fetal blood supply  decreased birth rate and physical malformations, mental retardation STD- AIDS the last stage of HIV; alcohol myopia- attractions of sexual activity remain unclear to the drinker, aids homosexuals, large stigma Unhealthy Lifestyles are Preventable; Self-control Self control- behavior that produces a larger, long-term when people are faced with the choice between it and a smaller, short-term reward – a prior commitment to a course of action that precludes making this decision Health Psychology- the branch of psychology involved in the promotion and maintenance of sound health practices Stress and Health Stress- a pattern of physiological behavioral and cognitive responses to stimuli (real or imagined) that are perceived as endangering ones well being – biological response experienced like emotion Stressors- Stimuli that are perceived as endangering ones well being – not always harmful such as competition can enhance performance (positive aspect) Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome- chronic exposure to severe stressors produce a sequence of three physiological stages; alarm, resistance and exhaustion (which are the GAS), AR- arousal of the autonomic nervous system and is triggered with the first encounter of the stressor ANS drops, R- ANS returns to normal and is the adaptation phase, E- looses ability to adapt R plummets  susceptible to death or illness Fight or flight- physiological reactions that help ready for strenuous efforts required by fighting or running away - When strenuous situations are continuous rather then episodic they can lead to CHD and other health problems because of the continuous state of arousal - In times of need our body secretes epinephrine, norepinephrine and steroid stress hormones - Epinephrine releases the stored form of glucose present in the muscles  providing energy for exercise - Norepinephrine increases blood flow to the muscles and blood pressure - Stress related hormone is cortisol aka glucocorticoid- profound effects on glucose metabolism, similar to epinephrine influences the metabolism of glucose - Long term affects of glucorticoids include; increased blood pressure, damage to muscle tissue, stunted growth, HBP heart attack Cognitive app
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