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Study Guide for Midterm

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Anna Nagy

PSYB01 Notes I Chapter 1: Scientific Understanding of Behaviour The Scientific Approach Limitations of Intuition and Authority: illusory correlation ± occurs when we focus on two events that stand out and occur together *44/890L3¶80;4O;0/9K047\41science: - observations accurately reported to others - search for discovery and verification of ideas - open exchange and competition among ideas - peer review of research Scepticism, Science, and the Empirical Approach Empiricism ± knowledge is based on observations Falsifiability ± can be falsified by data Peer Review ± reviewed by peers of the same expertise to carefully evaluate the research and recommend if research should be published Pseudoscience - hypotheses generated are typically not testable - if scientific tests are reported, methodology is not scientific and validity of data is questionable - supportive evidence tends to be anecdotal or relies heavily on authoriti089K,9,70³84- .,OO0/´0[50798L39K0,70,41L3907089*03:L308.L039L1L.701070nces are not cited - Claims ignore conflicting evidence - Claims are stated in scientific-sounding terminology and ideas - Claims tend to be vague, rationalize strongly held beliefs, and appeal to pre-conceived ideas - Claims are never revised Goals of Science 1) to describe behaviour ± careful observation 2) to predict behaviour 3) to determine the causes of behaviour 4) to understand or explain behaviour To Conclude Causation these 3 must occur: 1) Temporal Precedence ± A first then B 2) Co-variation of the cause and effect ± when A is present B occurs, when A not present B does not occur 3) Elimination of Alternative Explanation ± no other plausible explanation Basic Research ± tries to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behaviour, studies are often designed to address theoretical issues concerning phenomena such as cognition, emotion, motivation, learning, psychobiology, personality development, and social behaviour 0[8NL3307¶84507,39.43/L9L43L3J Applied Research ± conducted to address issues in which there are practical problems and potential solutions - Program Evaluation ± 0;,O:,9089K084.L,O7014728,3/L334;,9L4389K,94..:7L3J4;¶9 education, the criminal justice, industry, health care, and mental health institutions Chapter 2: Where to Start Hypotheses and Predictions Hypothesis ± a type of idea or question; it makes a statement about something that may be true, often stated in more specific and formal terms Predictions ± if prediction is confirmed by the result, hypothesis is supported (not proven), if prediction is not confirmed, hypothesis is rejected Who We Study - Subjects/Participants, Respondents (people who take part in survey research), Informants (people who help researchers understand the dynamics of a particular culture or organizational setting) Sources of Ideas - common sense ± ex: common sayings ± opposites attract - observation of the world around us ± 0[!,;O4;¶8/4J8,O;L, - theories ± organize and explain events, generate new knowledge o Scientific Theory ± grounded by actual data, supported by a large body of research - past research - practical problems ± ex: city planning Anatomy of a Research Article 1) Abstract ± summary 120words 2) Introduction ± explains the problem under investigation and the specific hypothesis being tested 3) Method ± describes in detail the exact procedures used in study 4) Results ± findings are presented (ex: narrative form, statistically, tables and graphs) 5) Discussion ± researcher may speculate on the broader implications of the results Chapter 3: Ethical Research LOJ7,28¶8 -0/L03.0[507L2039± 65% went all the way to 450 volts The Belmont Report 1) beneficence ± the need for research to maximize benefits and minimize any possible harmful effects of participant 2) respect for persons (autonomy) ± participants are treated as autonomous, can make a deliberate decision if they want to participate in research or not 3) justice ± addresses the issues of fairness in receiving the benefits of research as well as bearing the burdens of accepting risks Risk Benefit Analysis ± calculate potential risks and benefits Risks ex: Physical Harm, Stress, Loss of Privacy and Confidentiality Informed Consent ± potential participants in a research project should be provided with information that might influence their decision of whether to participate Assent ± signed consent by parent/guardian and agreement by minor Coercion ± threat to autonomy, forcing them to do the experiment Deception ± occurs when there is an active misrepresentation of information Debriefing ± occurs after the completion of the study, informs participant of study Role-Playing ± experimenter describes a situation to participants and then asks them how they would respond to the situation Institutional Review Board (IRB) ± is responsible for the review of research conducted within the institution - No Risk (anonymous, public ± no informed consent required), - Minimal Risk (no more than daily stress - need informed consent and debriefing), - Greater than Minimal Risk Research (stress, or invasion of privacy ± need informed consent, full IRB review) Fraud ± can be found when it is difficult to replicate the data Plagiarism ± 2L8705708039L3J,349K07¶8Z47
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