Chapter 7.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Chapter 7 2x2 factorial design 1. The simplest multifactorial experimental design 2. Contains two independent variables a. Each with two levels or values 3. A 3x4 factorial design would contain a. One independent variable with 3 levels b. One independent variable with 4 levels 4. The number of treatment groups that we have in any factorial design can be calculated by multiplying through the number notation a. 2x2=4 b. 3x4=12 5. A factorial experiment allows us to examine all combinations Additivity 1. Used to indicate the absence of interaction between independent variables 2. Additivity = no interaction 3. E.g. two main effects that have no interaction a. We say that the values of one independent variable exerts a similar additive effect on the values of the other independent variable Analysis of variance 1. Also known as the F-test 2. A general statistical procedure that is used to evaluate the likelihood that results obtained in a study are due to chance 3. It is used when there are more than two levels of an independent variable a. E.g. comparing group of research participants who received brain plasticity training with a i. Comparison group 1. Who received an educational DVD ii. Control group 1. Who received no treatment iii. Example of a one factor analysis of variance (simple ANOVA) 1. Because only one independent variable is being measured across multiple (two) levels Antagonistic interaction 1. AKA crossover interaction 2. In contrast to additivity in that two plots of data show opposite effects on the dependent variable  leading to a crossover or an antagonistic interaction (the two lines of data intersect at a certain point) Approach avoidance motivation 1. Informational value as signals (motivational signals) of a. Approach that propels behavior forward, setting the stage for fight i. Direct expression or confrontation b. Or of avoidance that results in flight i. Fueling avoidance, triggering inhibition, escape from negative stimuli of potential danger and threat Crossover interaction 2. AKA antagonistic interaction Encoding 3. The processing of new information 4. Experiment involving staged event manipulations a. Affected encoding condition method i. Participants receiving the feedback about their futures ii. Reading the GRE passages iii. Told the feedback was not true iv. Answering recall questions about GRE passages v. Summary 1. Read / encoded the passages after receiving news that they would either a. End up alone in life b. Become increasingly accident prone in later life c. Have a full life of rewarding relationships 2. Told that their future horoscopes were wrong before recall test completion b. Results i. Reading scores are lower for the recall / future alone condition
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