Chapter 8.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Chapter 8 Aggregate matching 1. When random assignment is not possible 2. Identifying a comparison group that matches the treatment group in the aggregate rather than trying to match individual cases 3. It means finding a comparison group that has similar distributions on key variables a. Average age b. Percentage female c. Etc 4. For this design to be considered quasiexperimental a. Individuals must not have been able to choose whether to be in the treatment group or control group Amygdala 1. Almond shaped structure found deep in the brain that plays a key role in fusing memories with emotion 2. Adjacent to the hippocampus Attrition 1. Dropout rates 2. Can threaten sample size in longitudinal studies Baseline 1. A control condition is important because it provides a baseline measure of data 2. Baseline measure is a point of reference that treatment data can be compared to Before and after designs 1. Absence of a comparison group 2. All cases are exposed to the experimental treatment 3. The basis for comparison is provided by comparing the pretreatment to the posttest measures 4. Useful for studies of interventions 5. The simplest type of before and after design is the fixed sample panel design a. With one pretest and one posttest Cerebral cortex 1. The brains outer layer 2. Thought to be the seat of higher thinking 3. Thickens during early childhood 4. Reverses and thins out as the brain matures through adolescence 5. Children differ considerably in the timing of these developmental trajectories in brain maturation 6. Think of these differences that children show as thickening and thinning of the cerebral cortex Cohort 1. A group of individuals sharing a certain characteristic a. E.g. age / year of high school graduation / locale Cohort effects 2. Effects that result as a consequence of being born at different times Constructivist theory 3. Culture is conceptualized as the rich blend of images, metaphors, practices, and discourses about human life that prevail in a given group or society a. This blend is likened to a cultural menu that provides the raw materials from which people construct their own individual life stories or narratives 4. Culture provides each person with an extensive menu of stories about how to live, and each person chooses from the menu 5. Implications of this theory a. Within the same person, they may exist two very different cultural menus b. Within any person, there is a dynamic ebb and flow to one’s internalized culture; i. It is not relied on continuously for interpretation and meaning, but instead only a small subset of cultural knowledge may come to the fore at any given time Control condition 1. Similar to control group 2. Condition or group that does not receive treatment Correlation coefficient 1. The degree and direction of a relationship between two variables 2. Vary from -1.00 to +1.00 3. The number value indicates the strength of the relationship between the two variables a. A larger number indicates a stronger relationship 4. Positive correlation a. As one variable increases, the other variable increases 5. Negative correlation a. As one variable increases, the other variable decreases Cross sectional method 1. A method used in developmental studies 2. Taking groups of people of different ages and then comparing age groups on psychological processes such as moral reasoning, problem solving or intelligence 3. Often confounded by cohort effects Cross sequential design 1. Designs designed to manage confounds that occur in developmental research 2. Requires two or more age groups tested at two or more time intervals 3. Allows for three important effects to be studied simultaneously a. Cross sectional b. Longitudinal c. Time lag Ex post facto control group design 1. Similar to the non-equivalent control group design a. Difference i. Does not meet the criteria for quasiexperimental designs as well as the non-equivalent control group design 1. i.e. non-equivalent is better considered quasiexperimental 2. Has experimental and comparison groups that are not created by random assignment a. Individuals themselves may decide themselves whether to enter treatment or control group 3. Ex post facto a. After the fact 4. People who join the treatment group may differ because of what attracted them to the group initially, not because of their experience in the group Frame switching 1. Subset of Hong’s constructivist theory 2. The process through which bicultural individuals alternate between two internalized cultural mental sets 3. When triggered by cues in the social environment, bicultural individuals can switch between two cognitively interpretive frames rooted in their two different cultures Functional magnetic resonance imaging 1. Widely used technique that records the brain at work while an individual performs a task in real time 2. Can be combined with various behavioral exercises, and these performance tasks can entail highly controlled experiments of various aspects of thinking, remembering, feeling, and concentration 3. Uses a blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) signal to measure brain activation while participants perform various tasks 4. Different cognitive tasks will elicit different fMRI patterns of brain activation a. Some brain areas will be more active than other brain areas while participants perform certain tasks b. By examining these patterns, researchers can identify various neural networks that underlie different kinds of performance, whether involving memory, attention, perception, or virtually any other kind of information processing Hippocampus 1. Known to be crucial in remembering 2. Plays an important role in providing the emotional tone and intensity for memories 3. Adjacent to the amygdala Individu
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