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David Nussbaum

Chapter 1 Uncommon Sense Sept. 9, 2011 - Psychology: scientific study of people, the mind, and behaviour, endless questions about how we feel, think, behave, believe and interact. - Barry Schwartz Study (2004) 1- disagree completely, 7-agree completely o 7, 7, 4, 7, 1, 5, 1, 4, 4, 2, 4, 4, 7 (Jeff: 7, 5, 1, 1, 2, 5, 3, 3, 6, 1, 5, 5, 6) o High scores: maximizers (52+) o Low scores: Satisficers (52-) o 2006 – research showed that maximizers got good/better jobs but were much less happy, more stressed at their current positions - Scientific Method: veritable rules of research, procedures and techniques for conducting and evaluating psychological research - Empiricism: school of philosophy where knowledge is gained through experience, observation and experiment - Data: empirical information that can be measured and evaluated statistically - Bias: Unfair practices that wrongly discriminate against others - Is- ought questions: Is- science, ought- philosophical - Theory: Coherent set of propositions that are used as principles to describe, understand and explain psychological or behavioural phenomenon - Testable Hypothesis : framed as statement, a prediction - A priori: Exists before experimentation or observation - Post hoc: hypothesis formulated after collection of data, discouraged - Variable: any characteristic that can take on different values or can vary across research participants - If something cannot be measured, it cannot be investigated scientifically - Population: Entire collection of people, animals, plants or things (units) from which we can collect info - Sample: group of units selected from population - Generalizability: Extent to which findings from sample can be applied to wider population - Sample bias: some members of the population are less likely than others to be included in the study, such exclusions can produce misleading results - Scientific method uses statistics to test relationships between and among objective, quantifiable measures that are derived from either experimentation or observation Chapter 1 Uncommon Sense Sept. 9, 2011 - If the statistical analyses of data show that obtained results are highly unlikely due to chance, then the relationship is considered to be highly likely. On the other hand, if it is likely due to chance, then there is no empirical evidence to support relationship - Reliability: Consistency, data that can be replicated (repeated with same results) - Validity: Extent to which a study provides a true measure of what it is meant to investigate (e.g. other factors may affect the result of your experiment) - Confounds/Confounding variable: unwanted sources of influence that can be viewed as viable alternative explanations for result of study, may use a control variable in order to measure the unwanted source of influence - Observe and Think  Formulate Question  Develop Hypothesis  Conduct Study  Accept  Reject Interpret with Caution Methods and Tools of Psychological Research - Experiment: Controlled investigation in which one or more variables are manipulated Methods and Tools of Research True Random assignment (reduction of confounding variables taken away by e.g. experiments placebos) of participants to groups and manipulation of one or more independent variables (element of study that researchers can manipulate, change or select). Effects of independent variable is measured by dependent variable (observed effect, result or outcome that is measured in response to change in independent variable) Quasiexperime (Quasi – as if in latin) Experiments in which random assignment is not possible to nts groups. Aimed to examine effects of independent variable that cannot be directly manipulated (e.g. gender, race, age, ethnicity, etc) Descriptive Studies that focus on the distribution of the variables, the quantitative Research association of variables; causation cannot be established. Correlation (statistic provides index of how closely related two variables are) between a pair of variables. ** Naturalistic Observation: collect behavioural data in natural environments as opposed to lab or other controlled settings Survey Design Research in which information is obtained from a sample of individuals through their responses to specific questions. Survey (typically comprised of set of questions asking respondents about their activities, opinions, attitudes or preferences), self-report, limited to people re
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