Exam notes: chapter 8
Personality: two fundamental features; first, each person is consistent to some extent and second each
person is distinctive to some extent. The concept of personality is used to make sense out of the
behaviour and expressed feelings of others.
ID: is entirely unconscious and can be understood through dreams and anxiety. Freud concludes that it is
our instinctual needs such as food, water, sexual gratification, and avoidance of pain. the ID has only one
purpose, to obtain immediate satisfaction.
Pleasure principle: is the impulsion towards immediate satisfaction without regards for value, good or
evil, or morality and has no logic.
Ego: is the conscious self which mediates between ID's blind desires and the logic of the external world.
Ego obeys the reality principle
Reality Principle: realistic and safe way of preforming the instinctual needs of the ID.
Super Ego: emerges in the first 5 years of life; it compromises our societal standards of right and wrong
that are taught to us by out parents. Super ego is mainly unconscious and we are unaware of its
operations, it uses guilt as a weapon to punish the wrong doings of the ID and Ego.
Defence Mechanisms: main purpose is to reduce the anxiety crated by the conflicting demands of ID,
Super Ego, and External reality. Defence mechanism and anxiety are complementary concepts.
Levels of defence mechanisms:
delusion projection- delusion about external reality
denial- denial of external reality, denying to accept illness
distortion- grossly reshaping external reality to suit inner need
projection- giving ones own unacknowledged behaviour to another, “your angry not me”
schizoid fantasy- use inner fantasy to solve problem or get gratification
hypochondriasis- overwhelming feeling of having a physical illness.
Passive aggressive behaviour- aggression against others directed against the self.
Acting out- expression of an unconscious wish to prevent the though about the anxious issue
intectualization- thinking about wishes but not acting upon them
repression- forgetting information
displacement- directing the feeling of anger on one person on to another person
reaction formation- unconsciously being rude to a hated coworker
dissociation: temporary but drastic modification of ones character to avoid emotion distress.
altruism- constructive and gratifying service to others
humor- playful acknowledgement of feelings without any discomfort. Suppression- conscious decision to prevent conscious thought of the conflict.
Anticipation- realistic thoughts about future inner discomfort, losing a parent.
Sublimination- indirect way of expressing instinctual wishes, art, sports, etc.
TypeAcoronary prone behaviour patter: an action emotion that can be seen in anyone who is struggling
to achieve more and more in less and less time.
Components of TypeAcoronary phrone behaviour patter:
• insecurity of status- no mater how successful, they often compare themselves to higher achievers
and have lack of self esteem.
• hyperaggressiveness- desire to dominate others and damage their self esteem.
• free floating hostility- finds too many things to get upset about
• sens of time urgency (hurry sickness)- speeding up daily activities and doing 2 things at a time.
Q-Technique- is a generalized procedure that is especia