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Elizabeth Page- Gould

~PSYB10 FINAL EXAM REVIEW NOTES~ Lecture 5 Group Processes Groups: a collection of three or more ppl who interact with one another and are interdependent, in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to rely on one another  Why people join groups: forming relationships with other ppl fulfills a number of basic human needs  The needs are so basic that they might be an innate need  Substantial survival advantage in our evolutionary past o Hunt, grow food, find mates, and care for children – all easier in groups  The need to belong has become innate and is present in all societies and as such ppl in all cultures are motivated to form relationships o James Cameron (1999) – Mount Allison university students felt that feeling a part of the university was associated with positive self-esteem and wellbeing (also associated with “helping them become the self they aspired to be in the future”) o “Group Membership” – plays an important role in motivating ppl to become involved in social change  Groups have a number of benefits: other ppl may be an important source of information, groups are also an important part of our identity, helping us define who we are, and serve as a source of social norms, the explicit and implicit rules defining what is acceptable behavior Composition and Function of groups  Social Groups: 3-6 ppl, the members of the group tend to be alike in age, sex, beliefs, and opinions o Most vary in size from 3-6 ppl b/c interaction btwn ppl involved are required as part of the definition of a “social group” (bigger groups, less interaction) o 2 Reasons for the homogeneity: 1 is to attract ppl who are already similar before they join, another is b/c groups operate in ways that encourage similarity btwn the members o Social Norms: the implicit and explicit rules a group has for the acceptable values, and beliefs of its members  Could be considered “a group’s prescriptions for the behavior, values, and beliefs of its members  Are a powerful determinant of our behavior  Group members are expected to conform to these norms, and those who deviate are punished or rejected  UC Berkeley’s “Naked Guy”  (May) not be shared by members of other groups that you belong to (church, mosque, etc.)  Ppl who violate social norms are shunned by other group members and are in some instances pressured to leave the group o Social Roles: a group’s expectations for he behavior and responsibilities of various SUBGROUPS of its members (whereas norms specify how ALL group member s should behave)  useful because ppl know what to expect from each other  Potential costs of social roles: ppl can get too into their role such that their personal identity and personality are lost  The Stanford Prison Experiment (Haney, Banks, and Philip Zimbardo 1973) had to be called off after 6 days instead of lasting the full 2 weeks  Ppl forgot they were in an experiment and their sense of decency was lost  (Zimbardo, 2007) – abuse of Iraqi prisoners by American soldiers in Abu Ghraib Prison o Prisoners were easily dehumanized (diff. language and nakedness b/c of no prison suits) o Gender roles: societal expectations based on people’s gender (across all situations)  Women – wife and mother; limited pursuits career-wise with options remaining limited by gender-role stereotyping  Women are still constrained by expectations that they will pursue traditional occupations, and that child care and housework remain their responsibility  Women are still expected to pursue gender stereotypic occupations  Expectations have change over the years but 26/28 women still earn less than men o Group cohesiveness: qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking among them (Dion 2000; Hogg 1993; Holtz 2004)  An important aspect of group composition is how tightly knit the group is  The more cohesive a group is, the more its members are likely to stay in the group, take part in group activities, and try to recruit like-minded members  one drawback: group members’ concern with maintaining good relations can get in the way of finding good solutions to problems Destructive Groups (Cults)  Defining characteristic of Destructive Cults 1. Charismatic leader 2. Leaders are self-appointed 3. The leader is the focus of veneration 4. Group culture tends towards totalitarianism 5. Group usually has more than 2 or more sets of ethics– lower sets of hierarchy have different norms and rules from the higher-ups (know about the inner workings of the cult, know about the money) 6. Group presents as innovative and exclusive 7. Main goals: Recruitment & Fundraising De-individuation  The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people are in a group, leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts  “getting lost in a crowd”, hiding behind the anonymity of the internet, can lead to an unleashing of behaviors that individuals would never dream of doing otherwise  “Disguises tend to make those wearing them capable of far more terrible acts of violence than would normally occur” (Simmie, 1993)  Why does Deindividuation Lead to Impulsive Acts? 3 Factors 1. The presence of others, or the wearing of uniforms and disguises, makes people less accountable for their actions because it reduces the likelihood that any individual will be singled out and blamed (Diener, 1980; Prentice-Dunn & Rogers, 1989; Zimbardo 1970) 2. The presence of others lowers self-awareness, thereby shifting people’s attention away from their moral standards (difficult to focus on the inward on ourselves and outward on the world around us at the same time) a. Focusing on ourselves is that we are reminded of our moral standards, making us less likely to behave in a deviant or antisocial manner b. Focusing on our environment, self-awareness will be low and we will be more likely to forget our moral standards and act impulsively 3. Finally, deindividuation also increases the extent to which people obey the group’s norms instead of other norms a. Ignore laws, common decency, etc. How groups affect us: Social Facilitation and Social Loafing  Social Facilitation: the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks, but worse on complex tasks, when they are in the presence of others, AND their individual performance CAN be evaluated o “when the presence of others energizes us” o The mere presence of others (no interaction) can mean ONE of TWO things 1. Performing a task with others who are doing the same thing you are 2. Performing a task in front of an audience that is not doing anything except observing you o Cockroach study (Zajonc, Heingartner, and Herman, 1992) o Simple vs. Difficult tasks  The presence of others improves performance on simple well-learned tasks  But there is a decline on performance, with an audience, on more difficult, new tasks o (Arousal – our bodied become energized) and the (dominant response – easier to do something that is easy)  Why the presence of others causes arousal: 1. Other people cause us to become particularly alert and vigilant a. We have to be alert in case we need to respond to an action made by the other person (question) 2. They make us apprehensive about how we’re being evaluated a. People are concerned with how other people view them b. Evaluation apprehension: concern about being judged 3. And they distract us from the task at hand a. How distracting other people can be b. Any source of distraction, the presence of others or even the noise upstairs c. Trying to pay attention to two things at once produces arousal  Social Loafing: the tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks, but better on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others AND their individual performance CANNOT be evaluated (part of the group) o “When the presence of others relaxes us” o Opposite of social facilitation o Singing in a choir o First studied in the 1880’s by the French Agricultural engineer Max Ringelmann (1913) o Just as arousal enhances performance on simple tasks and impairs performance on difficult tasks - becoming relaxed impairs performance on simple tasks but enhances performance on difficult tasks o Arousal, social facilitation for simple tasks; relaxed, social loafing for difficult tasks  Process of Social Facilitation or Social Loafing: Evaluation, Arousal, and Task Complexity – is covered in the above points o Social Facilitation  has a possibility of evaluation, arousal is present, enhances ability to complete simple tasks but impairs ability to do more complex tasks o Social Loafing  No evaluation (part of the group), relaxed, impairs the ability to do simple tasks but enhances the ability to do more complex tasks o Evaluation apprehension: concern about being judged/evaluated o Socio-evaluative Threat  Extreme Evaluation Apprehension  Body responds with the stress hormone cortisol  Cortisol constricts blood vessels in hippocampus, inhibiting memory and learning Group-decision making: Are two heads better than one?  Groups will do better than individuals if people are motivated to search for the answer that is best for the entire group and not just for themselves and if they rely on the person with the most expertise  The problem with group decision-making is that often times group interactions inhibit good problem solving o Groups will do well only if the most talented member can convince the other that he or she is right, but people are stubborn and won’t always admit they were wrong o Process Loss: any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving  Can occur for any number of reasons:  Groups might not try hard enough to try hard enough to find out who the most competent member of the group is and instead rely on somebody who doesn’t know what he or she is talking about  The most competent member might find it difficult to disagree with everyone else in the group  Communication problems within the group: people don’t listen to one another, one person is allowed to dominate the discussion while the others tune out  Failure to share unique information  Groupthink: many heads, one mind; a kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner o Antecedents • The group is highly cohesive: the group is valued and attractive, and people very much want to be members • Group isolation: the group is isolated, protected from hearing alternative viewpoints • a directive leader: the leader controls the discussion and makes his or her wishes known • high stress: the members perceive threats to the group • non-structured decision-making procedures: no standard methods to consider alternative viewpoints o Symptoms • Illusion of invulnerability: the group feels it is invincible and can do no wrong • Belief in the moral correctness of the group: :God is on our side” • Stereotyped views of out-group: opposing sides are viewed in a simplistic, stereotyped manner • Self-censorship: people decide themselves not to voice contrary opinions so as not to “rock the boat” • Direct pressure on dissenters to conform: If people do voice contrary opinions, they are pressured by others to conform to the majority • Illusion of unanimity: an illusion is created that everyone agrees, for example, by not calling on people known to disagree • Mindguards: group members protect the leader from contrary viewpoints o Consequences • Incomplete survey of alternatives • Failure to examine risks of the favoured alternative • Poor information search • Failure to develop contingency plans  Avoiding Groupthink: remain impartial, seek outside opinions, create subgroups, seek anonymous opinions, someone is explicitly assigned the role of ‘Devil’s Advocate’ Chapter 8 Lecture 6 Emotions  What is an emotion? – a brief physiological and psychological response to an event that is felt subjectively and prepares a person for action (4 aspects to discuss later) o A more complex definition: an emotion is a universal, functional reaction to an external stimulus event, temporarily integrating physiological, cognitive, phenomenological, and behavioural channels to facilitate a fitness-enhancing, environment-shaping response to a current situation” (Keltner & Shiota (2003), p.89) o What is not an emotion? • Due to their time-course, these things are not emotions: moods; sentiments; affective personality traits; by itself, level of arousal (sleepiness)  6 basic emotions (Ekman): fear, disgust, anger, sadness, happiness, and surprise o More negative (fear, disgust, anger, sadness) emotions than positive (happiness), surprise is considered valence (could be either pos. or neg.) • Greater functionality with negative emotions – help to survive • Positive might help with pair bonding o Complex emotions – blends of basic emotions • Affect blends - refers to a facial expression in which one part of the face is registering one emotion and another part of the face is registering a different emotion.  Happiness + Surprise = Amusement • Positive emotions  Most studied Examples are:  Gratitude, Contentment, Desire (moving towards Peditive, rewarding, stimulus), love (contested as to whether it is an emotion • Self-conscious emotions – complex emotions elicited by the self  Most studied examples:  Pride  shame(all about me, more likely to feel anger at the victim, less likely to apologize, more likely to not fess up, how you feel)  guilt (all about them, usually try apologize, make-up), both guilt and shame originate from an action that you regret taking, (wish I hadn’t done that)  embarrassment – always involves having done something that involves loss of face or hurts your status • Why do we feel? How do we recognize emotion? – what social psychologists want to know  Measuring emotions o Self-report o Facial action muscles o Emotional facial displays • Nonverbal communication: the way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words; nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position and movement, the use of touch, and eye gaze • Encoding: to express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling or patting someone on the back • Decoding: to interpret the meaning of the nonverbal behavior other people express, such as deciding that a pat on the back was an expression of condescension and not kindness o Facial Electromyography (EMG) • Captures subtle facial movements • Best used for situations where facial movement is not visually detectable • Obtrusive measurement technique o Facial Action Coding System (FACS) • Codes overt facial expressions • Numbers all facial muscle actions • Classifies emotions as patterns of muscle actions that occur together • E.g., anger is 4,5,7,23  Components of emotion “An emotion is a universal, functional reaction to an external stimulus event, temporarily integrating physiological, cognitive, phenomenological, and behavioural channels to facilitate a fitness-enhancing, environment-shaping response to a current situation.” (Keltner and Shiota, 2003 p.89) o Time span of emotion: Emotions are short-lived (Ekman, 1984) • Real emotions: between 500ms-4s* (Facial decay* - emotion rises and falls within that 4s) • Fake emotions: between 1-10s • Surprise is the shortest – 2.5 s • Happiness, disgust, and sadness are standard length • Anger and fear are longer – processed in a different part of the brain (might be why its longer)  What is NOT an emotion(b/c of their time-course, too long to be an emotion):  Mood – generalized affective state that they have, valenced state, no stimulus, lasts for awhile o Mood vs. emotion  mood is the residue left over from emotion  not an emotion: stimulus response – not always a response to an evocative stimulus, lasts for days, action tendencies – moods may not call or an action, experience – mood are mostly subjective; they are not observable physiologically  emotions always have physiological responses  Sentiments: greeting card, has some aspects of affect  Affective personality traits – use emotion word to describe someone at the personality level  By itself, level of arousal – physiological arousal (Sleepiness) o Physiological component • Peripheral nervous system – looking more to identify whether an emotional response has occurred  Most researchers require a peripheral physiological response to state that an emotion has occurred o Heart rate, skin conductance (activity on skin), pre-ejection period, finger temperature  Important caveat about inference: emotions CANNOT be identified by peripheral response, but they indicate degree of arousal or intensity • Central nervous system – there are various areas of the brain are involved in the processing of emotional stimuli  Limbic System o Amygdala: fear and anger o Hypothalamus: laughter  Frontal cortex o Everything else • Proper inference of psychophysiology  Physiological profiles & locations helps us understand arousal, intensity, & possible circuits o Physiological profiles could be: low skin conductance, high heart rate, avg finger temp (3 measurements)  Emotions cannot be identified by examining physiological states o Same states for different emotions, running laps = anger? • James-Lange Theory of Emotion - every emotion has a distinct, specific pattern of physiological responses that characterizes and underlies it  Implications: o Our physiological experience of emotion is the result of our underlying physiological responses o Every emotion has a physiological signature – a pattern or “profile” of physiological responses that uniquely identify it  Dec in heart rate and inc in skin conductance – sadness, negative arousal  Inc in heart rate – anger  Specific bodily (physio) response tells us what emotion we are feeling and the bodily response is SPECIFIC o Event -> specific bodily response -> subjective emotion  Can predict the physio responses from the psycho stimulus(inference only works this way, with psych as the independent variable), but not the reverse, do not see a change in emotional response when they change the physio response  Directed facial action task – experiment the James-Lange Theory (Levenson, Ekman, & Friesen 1990) o Method: 1. Tell participants to pose face in certain ways 2. Ask them what expression they are demonstrating 3. Measure physiological responses o Results: 1. Participants were able to identify emotions from instructions 2. Reliable physio profiles o Cognitive component • Cognitive appraisals: the meaning of an event affects our emotional response to it  Ex: getting punched o He meant to do it and he meant to hurt→ anger o He meant to do it, but was joking around→amusement  Key appraisals for eliciting emotion: self-relevance, goal congruence, blame & responsibility, certainty, coping ability • Two-Factor Theory of Emotion  Two-factor theory of emotion: 1. Physiological arousal is generalized, not specific (change from baseline) 2. We apply a label to the arousal based on cognitive appraisal (person’s own interpretation of physiological arousal) Event → General Arousal + Appraisal → Emotion 1. My heart is pounding! Something’s Happening! 2. Bears are dangerous. I’m Scared!  Schacter and Singer (1964) experimented to prove the Two- Factor theory o Method: 1. Give people heart-rate increasing pill or placebo 2. Have them complete a survey with very personal questions 3. An actor gets angry at the questionnaire 4. What does the participant do? o Results:  Aroused Participants expressed greater anger than the actor  Non-aroused participants didn’t get angry (placebo ppl) o James-Lange vs. Two Factor • James Lange says specific emotions are distinct and real • 2-factor says specific emotions are an illusion of appraisal • Two-factor theory of love/misattribution of arousal  Dutton & Aron Bridge Study o Behavioural component • Facial display  Corrugator supercili – brows, related to negative affect in general, all of them require a furrowing of the brow  Zygomaticus major – involved in all smiles, highly involved in positive affect, good mood,  Orbicularis oculi – real difference btwn a real (Duchene smile) and fake smile, always smile with zygomatic but a real smile also has the orbicularis oculi reaction  Levator labii – expression of you disgust, block your nostrils a bit to keep you from inhaling noxious odours/gases • Body posture – pride – shoulders back, standing up straight, ashamed – shoulders slumped • Vocal tone • Touch o Action! –  Action tendencies of emotions – approach or avoid the emotional stimulus o E.g., • Anger →APPROACH • Fear → AVOID • Disgust → AVOID • Happiness → APPROACH o This is the functional service of emotions o Universality/Functionality of emotions Universality of Emotion • Is emotion universal? – yes and no  There appear to be some universal aspects (6basic)  There are undeniably culturally-bound aspects, as well • Darwin (1872), The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals Adaptive value of emotions  Emotions are adaptations o Solve problems of survival, reproduction, raising young Expression of emotion  Expression evolved before language, first way to express thoughts and feelings to other people o Continuity btwn species – dogs and anger o Universality within species Ekman studies on universality of emotion • Is expression universal? • Ekman & Friesen(1972): New Guinean pre-literate villagers • 3 methods  Standard Method: here’s a photo what is the emotions (6 options)  Dashiel Method: told a story, then “which photo matches” (3 options)  Posed method: Told a story, then “You pose the emotion that the protagonist would be feeling”; Photos shown to US undergrads, who rated them with the standard method • Result: note that chance is 16% for standard and posed, and 33% for Dashiel • Is emotion universal?  Protypical expression of emotion appear to be universally recognizable and producible  However, cultural display rules apply  Influence how, when and to whom emotions are expressed o Situational context o Relational context o Intensity Functionality of Emotion • Emotions allow us to:  Act quickly o Just like heuristics  Are typically correct, but sometimes wrong o Just like heuristics • Emotions allow us to quickly respond to the most important stimuli in life • The Action Tendencies of emotions are their basic functions • Culturally-specific emotions  Some argue Emotions as culturally constructed and specific  Examples: o Japanese Amae – pleasant feeling of depending on someone else o German Schadenfreude – pleasure derived from the misfortune of others o Bedouin Hasham – pleasant feeling of humility Morality  The study of morality in social psychology  Social psychology cannot tell you what is morally right or wrong  Instead, soc-psy studies why you think something is morally right or wrong Moralization  The transformation of preferences to values – a value judgment is added to a decision  Cultural level  Cigarette smoking in Canada  Individual level o Vegetarianism in Canada Moral reasoning How do you decide whether you think something is morally right or wrong? What is moral? o A man goes to the supermarket once a week and buys a dead chicken. But before cooking the chicken he has sexual intercourse with it. Then he cooks it and eats it. o A woman is cleaning out her closet and she finds her old Canadian flag. She doesn’t want the flag anymore so she cuts it up into pieces and uses the rags to clean her bathroom o A family’s dog was killed by a car in front of their house. They had heard that dog meat was delicious, so they cut up the dog’s body and cooked it and ate it for dinner o Julie and Mark are brother and sister… - no children, strengthens their relationship, no repeat or abuse of their relationship Moral reasoning o Utilitarian reasoning – basing your moral decisions on the outcomes/ends/utility of an action o Deontological reasoning – basing your moral decision on reduction of harm (no killing) Moral emotions o Almost all modern social psychological views of morality consider it to be a reasoning process that is influences by emotion o Feelings as information • Emotions used as information when making judgments  I feel good → I must like this proposition  I am angry → I must dislike this proposition • Functionality of emotion-based reasoning:  Reduces complexity  Rapid decision making o “Moral triad” of emotions • Moral violations elicit specific emotions • Moral triad:  Disgust o Elicited by violations of divinity  Purity  Cleanliness o Example divinity violation: a 70-year-old male has sex with a 15-year-old female  Anger o Elicited y violations of autonomy  Individual rights  Personal harm o Example violation of autonomy:  A husband gets drunk and beats his wife  Contempt o Elicited by violations of community  Community  Hierarchy o Example community violation:  A teenager refuses to yield her seat on the TTC to a crippled elderly woman o Social Intuitionist Model – Jonathan Haidt (2001) • Two steps of moral reasoning 1. Make moral judgment based on emotional reaction 2. Try to come up with acceptable justification for that reaction o React then justify Dual-process theory of moral reasoning o Josh Green o Two types of reasoning processes involved in the moment of the moral decision: emotional and utilitarian  All people show heightened activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) when making difficult moral decisions (kill your baby, or get your entire village killed) o Emotional processes – more emotional decision making processes o Utilitarian processes – kill the baby, more logical o There is conflict when there are strong arguments for both utilitarian decision and an emotional decision, there is conflict  Neural structures involved in rational and emotional moral reasoning o People who ultimately choose utilitarian argument: greater activation in (dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex) dPFC > ACC while making the moral decision Chapter 4 Lecture 7 Initial Attraction  Proximity (was known as propinquity effect, Festinger) – strongest factor o Propinquity effect • The more we see and interact with other people, the more likely we are to become our friends • The degree to which you interact with someone else, how physically close you are • The more you see and interact with other people, the more likely you are to be their friends • MIT Westgate West Apartments  Results:  next-door Neighbours: 41%  2 doors apart: 22%  Opposite hallways: 10% nd  Apartments 1 and had more friends from 2 floor o Why does proximity promote attraction? • Availability/accessibility • Because it suggests similarity • Mere exposure  Familiarity o Mere-exposure • The more exposure you get to a neutral object, the more you will like it • Does not apply if the object has negative qualities • Moreland & Beach (1992)  Method: o Confederate sits in front row of class for 0-15 classes o At end of semester students rate liking of confederate  Results: avg. 3.5 for ppl they’ve never seen, the number of times they’ve exposed to this person increases the liking • Mere-exposure to faces Mere-exposure to your own face  We tend to prefer our mirror image over photograph image  Friends prefer photograph image  Similarity – “Birds of a feather flock together” o Research supports the idea that similarity supports liking o Versus complementarity – “Opposites attract”  Reciprocity & Attraction/Reciprocal Liking o We like people who like us o Subtle liking cues • Eye contact • Leaning in • Attentive listening • Mimicry o Less true for people with low self-esteem/negative self-concept Attractiveness o What is attractive? • Attractiveness in men and women  Men: large eyes, strong cheekbones, large chin, big smile  Women: large eyes, small nose, prominent cheekbones, and narrow cheeks, high eyebrows, large pupils (?), big smile • Why these features might be important • Symmetry – symmetrical vs. lop-sided faces, symmetrical is better (Denzel)  Symmetry Matters! • Averageness  more composite faces, more average, are more attractive than the individuals or with less faces included in the average  Why are they more attractive? – more familiar and more prototypical  composite faces are also more symmetrical  composites of people rated highly attractive are more attractive than composites of all attractiveness levels • Babyfacedness – large eyes, rounder face and nose  Babyfaced people are: o Are more persuasive o Perceived to be more trustworthy o Evoke liking and caregiving behaviours • Cultural influence: different cultures attribute Beautiful People with certain personality traits  These traits are also different across all cultures, though some share certain attributes, show that these people are “Perfect” to the values important to each culture o Attractiveness and liking/attraction • Walter et al., (1966) • Method:  752 freshmen met up at a blind-date dance  Assigned to random pairs  Who wanted to go on a date again? • Results: desire for second date driven by:  Partner’s attractiveness  Independent of rater’s attractiveness  NO personality effects • Beautifulness-is-good Stereotype  Babies stare at ‘attractive’ faces longer  There is a fair amount of cross-cultural consistency in attractiveness judgments  Beautiful-is-good Schema  Beauty creates a “halo effect” o Occurs most for social competence o More sociable, extraverted, popular o More sexual, happy, friendly o There is a kernel of truth o Cultural shifts in attractiveness o Attractiveness and relationships • Matching hypothesis – we seek partners that are of similar attractiveness to us, and are more satisfied with these partners  Couples of similar attractiveness were more likely to continue dating after a blind date  UCLA Dating Study o Results:  Satisfaction in relationship  Relationship longevity  Lower break-up rate at 6month follow-up  Misattribution of Arousal o Dutton & Aron Bridge study o Scarcity & Attraction • Scarcity – if potential mates are not plentiful, we may shift our standards of attractiveness • “Closing Time” Studies (Gladue &Delaney, 1990)  Approached people in bars  People asked to judge attractiveness of same-sex and opposite- sex targets (both photos and other patrons)  Time until closing time used as independent variable  Attractiveness ratings of opposite-sex targets increased as the evening progresses )9:00pm <10:30pm <12am)  Holds even when statistically controlling for alcohol intake Chapter 9 Close Relationships Evolutionary perspectives on relationships  Evolutionary fitness – potential to pass on your genes/successfully procreate o Ability to survive to mating years o Ability to maximize the number of offspring that survive to their mating years Polygamy and monogamy o Polygamy – several members of one sex mating with one individual of the other sex • Polygyny  Several females mate with one male  90% of mammals • Polyandry  Several males mate with one female o Reproductive investment – the “investment” of time, resources, and risk involved in having each child • Typically varies btwn the sexes • Sexual “Choosiness” – the sex which bears the most reproductive costs is “choosier”  Choosy sex o Bears the most reproductive costs/investment o Usually the female, but not always  Sex with least reproductive costs: o Should want more partners o Will be in competition for mates more often o Displays greater physical variation o Sexual dimorphism – pronounced difference in the size or bodily structures of the two sexes (seen in polygamous animals) o Biological basis of monogamy: Oxytocin & Dopamine • Monogamy – reproductive partnership based on a more or less permanent tie btwn partners  Sexes are close to indistinguishable based on physical characteristics • Co-occurrence of Oxytocin and Dopamine in Nucleus Accumbens  Dopamine – reward neurotransmitter  Oxytocin – “Attachment Hormone” that is also a neuropeptide • Monogamous animals  Oxytocin and dopamine receptors share nucleus accumbens  Activation of one activates the other  All 5% of monogamous animals share this anatomical feature • Polygamous animal  No oxytocin receptors in nucleus accumbens  Homosexuality o Reproductive partnerships btwn members of the same sex o Widely displayed across the animal kingdom o Usually associated with disproportionate number of male and female mating adults  Human mating – are we polygamous or monogamous? Evidence to both sides o Polygamous and monogamous features of humans • Polygamy evidence  Sexual dimorphism  Great physical variation  85% of traditional cultures allow some kind of polygamy • Monogamous Humans  Co-occurrence of Oxytocin & Dopamine in human brain  Great physical variation among both sexes  98.9% of men and 99.2% of women report hoping to settle hoping to settle with 1 like partner in the end o Human Mate Selection Need to belong  Motivation of belonging – belonging is a basic human motivation Evolutionary explanations: o Sociometer theory – self-esteem is a gage of whether we’ll be accepted or rejected by a group o Human “Survival tactics” – require several ppl (building shelters, hunting game, agriculture, survive a predator) o Development of human children – human children are helpless for several years, need to belong to a group for survival o Compared to those who are isolated from others, people with strong social networks are: • Happier • Healthier • Greater life satisfaction Social isolation  Long-term isolation is a form of official torture/punishment in every society  Social ostracism/rejection is an unofficial way to enforce social rules in every society  Effects observed in other primates as well o Effects of social isolation: after 3 months • Huddling alone, rocking, self-mutilation • Incompetent (often abusive) parenting to their offspring o Harlow’s Monkeys – never interacted with other monkeys, “cloth” mother, had food and water and warmth • Was introduced to therapist monkey – plays with “Therapist monkey” after 2 weeks • After 6 months isolated monkey seems mostly recovered  Remains more easily stressed out than “normal” monkeys Attachment Theory  Attachment Theory describes how infants become: o Emotionally attached to caregivers o Emotionally distressed at loss of caregiver  Functional purpose of attachment: o Comforts fearful child o Builds expectations for future relationships o Provides “secure base” for exploration  Preset in non-humans as well o Imprinting – a more basic form of attachment bond which occurs shortly after birth/hatching among many species • Must occur within the “sensitive period” • Animals show distress when imprinted object has been removed  Attachment among humans – infants enter world predisposed to seek direct contact with a primary Caregiver o Motivated by: • Infants find social interaction intrinsically rewarding • Instinctive fear of the unknown/unfamiliar Adult Attachment  Adult Attachment – adult romantic relationships function like caregiver-child attachment relationships (Hazan & Shaver, 1987) o Prefer proximity, with distress upon separation o Turn to partner for support when stressed, in danger o Derive security from partner, enabling exploration of and engagement with the rest of the world  Attachment styles o Secure (56%) - • I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depending on me. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me • Experience of love – trust friendship, positive emotions • View of self/relationship – believe in enduring love, others are trustworthy, self in likable • Memories of caregivers – dependably responsive and caring o Anxious-Ambivalent (19%) • I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me. I want to merge completely with another person, and this desire sometimes scares people away • Experience of love – preoccupying, almost painfully exciting struggle to merge with someone else • View of Self/relationships – fall in love frequently, easily; have difficulty finding true love; have self-doubts • Memory of care givers – mixture of positive and negative experiences o Avoidant (21%) • I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being. • Experience of love – fear of closeness, lack of trust • View of self/relationships – doubtful of existence or durability of romantic love, don’t need love partner in order to be happy, self as independent, self-reliant • Memories of caregivers – cold and rejecting • Fearful avoidant • Dismissive avoidant  Attachment dimensions o Now we think of attachment in terms of two continuous dimensions • Attachment avoidance – avoiding/not avoiding different ppl • Attachment anxiety – low or high, anxious (or not) about how things will go o Secure – low anxiety and low avoidance o Anxious ambivalent - low anxiety and high avoidance o Avoidance – high anxiety and high avoidance  Global versus specific attachment orientations Closeness Close Relationships: ABCs of Relationships Cognition: Self-Expansion Theory, Interdependence Theory Affect: Theories of Love, Positive Illusions Behaviour: Co-operative Dilemmas in Close Relationships Cognitive Component  Self-expansion theory – the experience of closeness is an associative overlap of our self-concept with our concept of a close other o AKA “Inclusion-of-Other-in-Self” o Information about close others are closely associated with self-related information o Self/other Cognitive Overlap: • Longer reaction times when making “me”/”not-me” judgments of spouse’s characteristics • Make more situational attributions for self and close others  Make more dispositional attributions for non-close others (Fundamental Attribution Error only applies to non-close others)  Interdependence Theory/Investment Model o Social Exchange Theory  Commitment – a mental state characterized by a pluralistic; collective representation of the self-in relationship  3 components of Commitment  Satisfaction – product of perceived rewards, costs, and comparison o Reward/cost ratio o Comparison level  Quality of alternatives – alternative partners  Investment Commitment = (↑Satisfaction) + (↓Quality of Alternatives) + (↑Resource Investment)  When commitment is high: Spontaneous use of plural pronouns  Rusbult (1983) o Method: o Measure Satisfaction, quality of alternatives, and resources in dating couples at Time 1 o Contact them 7 months later to ask about their commitment to their relationship Affective Component  Theories of Love o Companionate Love – feelings of intimacy and affection we feel when we care deeply for a person, but without sexual arousal or passion • Can exist btwn lovers or friends • Valued in all cultures o Passionate Love – feelings of intense longing for a person, usually accompanied by physiological arousal • Valued in 144 of 167 cultures  Positive illusions – “Idealization” of close others; seeing them as more positive than they see themselves o Over the course of 1-year, couple who maintain positive illusions of their partner (Murray, Holmes, & Griffin, 1996): • Decreasing instances of conflict • Increasing satisfaction • Decreasing doubts about the relationship • Were more likely to be together at the end of the year Behavioural Component  Co-operative dilemmas o What to do when one partner behaves destructively • Accommodate  Focus on long-term relationship goals instead of short-term, self- serving goals o Transformation of motivation in long-term relationships Relationship Dissolution  What couples do well? • Most studies of marital stability correlate relationship longevity with:  Married after age 20, similar age  Grew up in 2-parent homes  Dated for a long time, but did not live together  Same level of education, especially if high  Good income  Religious, and of same religious affiliation  Sense of equity  Sex often, arguments rarely o Novel experiences (Aron & Aron, 1986) • Sharing new experiences together • Exploration of environment with partner as “Secure Base”  Why relationships fail o Low equity in relationship o Lack of positive illusions (particularly negative illusions) o Low interdependence o Boredom – lack of exploration/novel activities • Top causes of Conflict:  Sex  Money  Kids: o Marital satisfaction dives with first child o Slowly returns to pre-child levels by empty nest o Boost in marital satisfaction when both kids leave the house o Gottman(1994): “4 Horsemen of the Apocalypse” 1. Criticism (e.g., listing personal flaws, attacking) 2. Defensiveness (e.g., denying, excusing, or counter-criticizing) 3. Contempt (e.g., rolling eyes, sarcasm, insulting) 4. Stonewalling (e.g., non-response to communicative attempts)  How relationships fail o Friendships • People typically use “passive strategies” to end the relationship  Avoidance or withdrawal o Romantic Relationships • People typically use “direct strategies” to end the relationship  Direct confrontation  Rejection o Neurochemical basis of rejection • Neurological Experience of Physical Pain:  Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) o Associated with “distress signal” during physical pain  Right ventral prefrontal cortex (rvPFC) o Associated with regulation and inhibition of felt pain  fMRI scans show cortical activity in ACC and rvPFC during social rejection o Relationship between social pain and physical pain • If social pain is physically painful…  Interrupting the experience of pain should dull the hurt of rejection  DeWall, MacDonald, et al. (2008) o Method: 1. Randomly assign participants to take Tylenol or Placebo twice daily for 21 days 2. Report on social experiences each day, particularly related to social rejection or social exclusion o Results: 1. Tylenol participants reported less physical pain 2. Tylenol participants reported less hurt feelings on days when they experienced social rejection or exclusion than placebo Chapter 9 Lecture 8 Culture  Culture – an everchanging, constructive stimulus which shapes the way individuals perceive and contribute to the world 1. Dynamic 2. Influenced by members of the culture 3. Influences members of the culture  Nationality – the country you were born in  Ethnicity – your cultural heritage  Identification – the degree to which you include group membership in your self- concept or sense of who you are  Meaning System o Symbols, language, experiences o Metaphysics • Beliefs about the world, universe, & existence  Describing Culture o Individualism/Collectivism • Individualist cultures – emphasize personal achievement, even at the expense of others • Greater emphasis on competition • E.g., Canada Western Europe • Collectivist cultures – emphasize social roles and collective responsibilities even at the expense of the individual • Greater emphasis on co-operation • E.g., China, Korea, Latin America o Political Climate • Political structure greatly constrains behavior and cultural expression • Sometimes government change can extinguish a culture o Religious Beliefs • Dominant religious beliefs characterize a culture’s moral reasoning and motivations • Religion also affects social roles and norms o Ecological Differences • Environmental context shapes the development and focus of a culture  Language Issues o Is the meaning of our words “lost in translation” when we translate from one language to another?  Translation Efficacy (i.e., “Lost in Translation?”) o Maybe-So evidence • Method: 1. Participants (Ps) who spoke Argentinean-Spanish, Chinese, or English 2. Showed Ps an array of objects 3. What would P use for each object? o Results: # of words used for pictured objects by culture o Argentinean-Spanish: 15 o English: 5 o Chinese: 7 o Maybe-Not Evidence • Method: 1. Participants (Ps) who spoke Argentinean-Spanish, Chinese, or English 2. Showed Ps the same array of objects 3. Asked Ps to group objects according to similarity • Results: o Speakers of all three language arranged the objects into the same groups • Conclusion: while we may call object by different names, we group them similarly  Back translation – translating a word, phrase, or sentence multiple times btwn two languages until both translations yield the same phrase o Process: • Translate from language 1 ->2, translate from 2->1, repeat until all
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