Prosocial Behaviour - Review Sheet.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Prosocial Behaviour  Co-operative Dilemmas = Situations where the most beneficial action for an individual will be harmful for the collective group. o Escalation of Conflict = Interpersonal conflict feeds itself and escalates if one side does not begin concession.  Ex: See Slide 44 o Tragedy of the Commons = A co-operative dilemma that occurs in situations where everyone has access to a common pool of goods that will replenish itself if used in moderation but disappear if overused. People reliably tend to take more than their share.  Why do we take more than our share?  Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic o Desired share is used as an anchor o Do not sufficiently adjust down  Size of commons is not readily estimable  When do we take our fair share?  Both the size of the common and the group that is sharing it are easily determined.  The size of an equal share is explicitly stated. o Prisoner’s Dilemma = A situation where two people must make a collectively- dependent decision without knowing the other person’s decision  Strategies that maximizes person outcomes (ex: gain most money) in multi-stage prisoner’s dilemmas:  Co-operate on first round  Then mirror opponent’s response o Defect as soon as opponent defects o Continue defecting until they cooperate, then cooperate  If you know when game is about to end: o Defect on last trial  Prosocial Behaviour = An action performed with the goal of benefiting another person o Types of Healing  Altruism = Helping done purely out of a desire to help another person. It does not benefit the self and may even involve a cost to the self. o Altruistic Personality = Dispositional tendency to help others across a wide variety of situations. o Most children help but it depends on the situation o Self-report measures of altruism typically do not predict actual altruistic behavior.  When do we help? The situation can influence whether we will help another person (altruism) or not (bystander apathy) o Mood = Affects helping behavior  Both good and bad moods increase helping relative to neutral mood  Good Mood & Helping  More likely to make positive attributions for others’ behavior and give them the benefit of the doubt when we ourselves are in a good mood  Helping helps us maintain good mood  Good moods increase self-attention, so we act more consistently with our values  Negative Mood & Helping  Negative State Relief = When we feel bad, we are more likely to help o Spare Time = We help less when we feel rushed for time  Good Samaritan Study  Participants of the study were rushing to give a speech at another building on campus and on their way they would pass a hurting confederate. Those students in a high hurry/late were the least likely to stop and help and those in low-moderate hurry were more likely to help. o Environment  Urban versus Rural Environments  Urban Overload Hypothesis = Urban environments constantly bombard you with stimulation, so you keep to yourself to avoid being overwhelmed by it o Proof: Where an incident occurs is more important than where the witnesses grew up o Proof: City density more important than city size  Bystander Apathy  Bystander Apathy/Bystander Effect = The greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the les likely that any one of them is to help. Attributed to two causes: pluralistic ignorance and diffusion of responsibility o Pluralistic Ignorance
More Less

Related notes for PSYB10H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.