PSYB10 Lecture 5-9 Final.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lec5 group processes GROUP PROCESSESSocial Groups FilmQuiet Rage The Stanford Prison Experiment ZimbardoSocial Facilitation and Social Loafing DeindividuationDestructive Groups cults Conformity FilmObedience Milgram TYPES OF GROUPS Differentiating elements of Nonsocial vs Social GroupsInteractionInterdependence SOCIAL GROUPSGroups have social norms to guide behaviorGroups have welldefined social rolesVary in level of group cohesiveness SOCIAL NORMSA groups prescriptions for the behaviour values and beliefs of its membersGroup members are expected to conformto these normsMembers who deviate from norms are punished or rejected UC Berkeleys Naked Guy SOCIAL ROLESA groups expectations for the behaviour and responsibilities of various subgroups of its membersPotential costs Individual personality may be taken over by power of roleViolation of social roles meets with censure from other group members GROUP COHESIVENESSThe degree to which a group IS or IS PERCEIVED TO BE close knit and similarIn the minds of group members Cohesiveness promotes liking and ingroup favouritismIn the minds of outsidersCohesiveness increases stereotyping of group members SOCIAL FACILITATION AND SOCIAL LOAFING Effects of groups on individual performance Created by an interaction of three factorsIndividual EvaluationArousalTask complexity SOCIAL FACILITATION Tendency for performanceto be improved when doingwelllearned or dominantbehaviours in the presence of others inhibited when doing lesspractised or difficulttasks in the presence of others SOCIAL LOAFINGTendency for people toperform worse on simpletasks and better oncomplex tasks if theyare in a group and notbeing individually evaluated EVALUATIONEvaluation Apprehension Concern about being judgedevaluatedSocioevaluative Threat Extreme Evaluation ApprehensionBody responds with the stress hormone cortisolconstricts blood vessels in hippocampusinhibiting memory and learning PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER o Evaluation Arousal and Task Complexityo How do they contribute to Social Facilitation and Social Loafing PresenceofOthersEvaluationApprehension Arousal Enhanced Performance on Simple Tasks OR Impaired Performance on Complex Tasks ComplexNo Evaluation ApprehensionRelaxationImpaired Performance on Simple Tasks OR Enhanced Performance on Complex Tasks Complex GROUP DECISION MAKING GROUP POLARIZATION Tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their membersCan be a shift to either greater risk or greatercautionHas both informational and normative explanations GROUP THINK A mode of thinking that people engage in when they aredeeply involved in a cohesive ingroup when the membersstrivings for unanimity override their motivation torealistically appraise alternative courses of actionExtreme form of Group Polarization o CHALLENGER DISASTER o ROGERS COMMISSIONDay before launch engineers warn about Orings Never tested below 12CEngineers warnings suppressed Oring warning never mentioned to higherupsA launch should be cancelled if there is any doubts of its safetyNASA policy CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUP THINK Antecedents o Highly cohesive o Isolation o Directive leader o High stress o Nonstructured decisionmaking procedures Symptoms o Illusion of invulnerability o Group is morally correct o Outgroup is stereotyped o Selfcensorship o Pressure for conformity o Illusion of unanimity o Mindguards Consequences o Incomplete survey of alternatives o Failure to look at risks of favoredalternatives o Poor informationsearch o No contingencyplans o Antecedents Symptoms Consequences HOW TO PREVENT GROUP THINK o Apriori assign someone to play Devils AdvocateEveryone must know that this person was assigned this role o Leader remains impartial o Seek feedback from people outside the group
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