PSYB10 All Lecture Note for Final.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lec5 group processes Skip question is to ur advantage fill in all the bubbles abcde; at the end, the ones u are sure u are wrong skip it..or the ones u r absolutely unsure of Milgrim to obedience film is not on exam,the final film u don’t need to watch Group processes-how do the grups of ppl surround us affect us There are two type-one tht is social (form of interdependence)and one tht is non-social(i.e.bunch of ppl just standing in line for book..nd they are not interacting/influencing each other ….but can be transformed into social group when hv shared view)…………not on exam…just noe tht social group req.common goal,interaction nd interdependence Social groups has…. Social norms-set of behavrs in social group Social roles Base on their cohisiveness,they are strongr or weaker norm(prescribed behavrs/guides), if violate; ppl feel offended like not wearing clothes…berkely got expelled cause he was naked….results in punishment nd ultimately may get rejected..nd also it is only ur current group tht effects ur behavr….applies to group members social roles-(specific subtype of essential norms..ascribed to certain ppl,nd helps group to function;violation samething…punishment and ultimately expulsion power of social roles-zimbardo interested assign ppl social roles i.e. guard or prisoner In the mock prison..essentially demonstrate social roles..imp implication to help ppl feel to free themselves in everday live…cause of their seemed to take who they are as the individ, although the roles may take over them …2 imp pnt-1. unquestionable social roles so powerful overwhelemed everybody in the experiment even if peripheral..2.u as indivd still matters u hv..even in extreme context u still cud hv chance to how to act w/in it …during tht experiment there was no research ethics board…but now u cant cause harm; ..zimbardo said tht he played a role as the superintendent for the jail,ended up for himself sucked in the experiment nd didn’t recognized tht he had the power to let everyone lost sight of his responsibity…dual roles in the context of the research is not allowed now , or u hv to hv hard justification Norms and roles depend on group cohisiveness-close-knit in similaIRTY TO EACHOTHER i.e.ferternities and sororities…nd when perceive tht my own group is more similar…then like ppl more nd in-group favouritism(resources) nd the minds of outsiders tht u perceive tht they r cohesive than will apply stereotype Way our groups affect our performance in front of others,nd depends on three factors-inidiv,arousal,nd complex of the task: 1.Social facilitation-presence of others doing easy task..performance is improved but not the complex 2.Social loafing-kind of opp of social facilitation,easy for complex ,individ evulation Evulation apprehension-individ maybe more or less concerned with how they are going to be judged on tht task..if hv more of this,more concerned,then highr arousal in the moment of performance Socio-evulativ threat(indivd)-intense form of the evulation apprehension; tend to see the body reflecting the apprehension..hormone cortisol(stress hormone) conserned..cortisol tends to inhibit essentially when have this form..follows w/ stress performance..inhibits ur performance …if don’t have this then hv relaxation Loafing/facilitation-both is comparing the presence of others compared to doing it alone by self… His is in book: 1.If little bit stress tend to perform better on simple task than performance is actually better when not totally relaxed(no evulation apprehension) 2...but if highly aroused..will be impaired w/complex task..socio-evuluativ threat..but if u are relaxed this helps u achieve in the complex task Group polarization-riskeier decisions,normative nd info influence…hv to appropriate in the norms/roles.nd also hv to turned everybody else to check our own knowledge thus tend to overest. The degree to which they agree on everything nd the outcome tht arises Group think-so much harmony group,nd cohisiveness.they fosuc more on uniform approach rather than best decision. i.e.challenger disaster…the shuttle explodes,nd nasa suggest if any reason shuttle gone wrong..shud cancel the launch..the day b4 launch they were concerned with the o-rings of the shuttle..nd the warnings were suppressed.. the moment of decision making, high group cohesiveness,isolation of the group from othr ppl(highest ranked manager watching launch),directed leader(authoritarian, nd guides convo),high stress, non-structured decision making(i.e.not following rules, its just sitting there and make the decision in a rational way) ..illusion of vulner(reason tht the group was right,consider the best of the best),group morally right(don’t evualte their decision,closed mind),self-sincereship(when sumone tells how to be,the individ may suppress their own opnions../pressure of conformity),mindguards(ppl who guarding the thoughts of others..making sure tht ppl who r talking in the group make sure their thoughts are consistent with the group) Consequences-no contingency plns(for getting out of the situation) How to prevent..? Before the groups even start to make decision..get one person to be the role of devils advocate(meant to question every one )…downplays the consequences of the groupthink..only works..if knows who is the devls advocate Leader remains impartial(i.e.leader doesn’t vote/deosn’t say like/dislike idea) Jury decision making(decides wheter or not u are guilty) Predeliberation error-b4 deliberating..u’ve made ur decision…essentially the group didn’t made the decision..cause decision already made Cascade effects-first person who speaks at the judgement table..their judgement tends end up to dominate the entire judgement process..self-censoring more and more as it goes down cuase assume everybody know things Unanimous-in candan and us..the hwole jury has to agree if going to convict or not convict ..forced to continue to deliberate..more likely to hv more opinions No unanimity…faster decision..(ignore the ppl who r the minority) in…france has many more guilty verdicts in part cause just-world hypothesis(bad for bad)…bias…just because they are guilty Composition 12 group..Hung trial(means mis-trail)..more ppl involved..more likele a discentred in the group Deinividuation-lose sense of indentity morely likely to create identity of the crowds,..practically anything in unison…reason think its bad..cause less likely individ acts according to self opinions…. behavr takes over…he took a lot of pills…ended up killing himself destructive cults-employs unethical and harm techniques i.e.order of the solar temple..clubs…these ppl indoctrine them to these certain beliefs(islam nd Christianity)..ppl believed tht these leaders were the guardians of the coming of jesus..nd in order for them to protect the anti..if join..will be protect..gained a lot of money..nd few members began to leave the group..nd government started to investigate the group..nd triggered some mass suicide across time…and when the leader said there was a anti who was born w/in the group..the group killed them..nd the survivors mass suicide ..nomrally when see mass suicide of this cult,,essentially..othr ppl who are in the group tends to stay away from them..but in this they suicide themselves cuase it was so believed even when the leaders were died Leader veneration(leader can do no wrong,consider above,everybody adores them) Culture(everybody is controlled by the group) Ethics(strata of hierarchy,…have diff sets of norms/roles they have to follow..nd the highr role u are the more tuned in u are for the cult) Main goal-recruitment nd fundraising(money)…which puts ppl to the real bad side Lec6 emotion and morality Morality tends to be an emotion based form Emotion-breif (how long it last)psysio/psycho(levels) response to stimulus felt subj.(always hv to feel u r angry to say u are angry).nd prepare urself for action(why) Basic emotions-fundamental building blocks of other emotions..nd note tht there is dominant of negative emotions(disgust,fear,anger,sadness)..cause may fit our likelihood to survive..i.e.make u not eat sumthing..or run away..greter functionality Complex emotion is not on the list of basic but a blend i.e.maused is happy nd surprise Positive emotions Gratitude(appreciation),contentment(satisfaction),…,desire(for a rewarding stimulus..feeling of moving towards),love(contested-whteher or not emotion) Self-conscious emotions-on self Pride(self-reference of self-concept),shame/guilt(both is has done sumthing bad,starts with the same stimulus),but guilt(regret,more likely to repair it..confesses),shame(all about the me,the negative aspect,more angry at the victim..nd less likely to apologize..nd more likely to no admit.not confessing),embarrassment(involves the loss of face,hurts status,belnd of positive nd negativ) Real emotions greatly fleet away compared to fake Remembering/rehearsing/recalling is another stimulus..thinking bout a stimulus..makes the emotion reborn every few sec. Not emotions cause stimulus,affective like things,nd time-course: 1.Moods-affects stimulus..nd persists a while(generalized affective state)…perhaps like a residue of emotion (decay state)..dont seem to motivate behavr not functional(purpose as with emotion)..nd more subj(not physio..vs. emotion has always) 2.Sentiments-affects(agree/disagree) 3.Affective personality trait-words tht describe ppl.(differences) 4.Level of arousal(by self) Physio and emotion -preejaction(heartbeat,nd expel blood) perpipheral(from profile cant say u are feeling sad,disgust..etc.)..cause mostly respond to homeostasis, cant look at someone physio nd indicate emotion..but can make the statement ofdegree of intensement from baseline…the person will hv to tell u…could predict..but cant say physio to conclude anger..cause responds to a lot of things Amygdala-only fear and anger stimulu Thalamus-all emotions go thru Hypothalamus-only laughter(cause experience lesion,..then the animal hv uncontrollable laughter) Frontal cortex-has everything else(most in prefrontal….cause more to do with excutiv control nd pattern matching..highly ordered..more advanced) James-lange theory-physio response is why u feel the emotion (i.e. feel angry cause we alrwady feel angry) and each emotion has a profile(i.e.sadness-decrease in heartbeat nd skin conductance increases;anger increase heartbeat) Feedback to the system (responses tht are below the neck physio) (above the neck more distinct responses i.e.facial muscles very diff from below the neck physio) Will the manipulation of the favcial displays yield phsio responses? ..facial action task-…suggested tht ppl even pertend to be angry they show similar physio profile Evulating stimulus.. Most imp factor-self relevance-more emotional aroused when some1 did sumthing to you Goal congruence-more bout aggression..get very frustrated nd angry when sumone blocks u to achieve sumthing(how much the emotional event affects ur emotion nd inhibit ability towards tht goal Blame and responsibility(i.e.step on toe, either by accident or purpose so then wud be mad Certainity-how positive the emotional response,delayed…until hv decisive decision of wht occurred Coping ability-…how well can u handle it (i.e. backfired battery..if don’t hv backup will freak out) Two factor theory: 1.just bout arousal/intensity..only thing tht matters is the diff from baseline(simply a trigger) 2. The arousal gives the cognitive appraisal(searches for) Study-Emotional experience showed the only occurred cause a.they had a excelerated heart rate compared to placebo b.when given emotion to experience…caused the anger resource Differences b/w them James lange proposed tht the emotions are distinct Two-factor says the only reason we think we hv diff emotion is illusion of langgauge, where we label..and aren’t distinct but the fact tht how u think bout it Behavral chennels tht display emotion Focus on facial Amusement,desire/lust,sympathy,pride-complex emotions on facial display..gets from muscles Across cultures..tend to make the same emotion/muscles Two most imp. need to know: Currogator supercilli-brows..displays negative aspect in general..almost all negative emotion refers to the brow & Zygomaticus-on cheek.pulls ..relates to all smiles..positiv mood..even when cant see this muscle can be detected Orbiculus with conjuction of the zygomaticus (genuine smile)……….diff b/w real nd fake smile But still culture diff Lavitor levi-relates to disgust(wrinkle up nose-blocks nostrils a little bit) Deshene-first guy who realized tht facial muscles relate to emotions, …ppl w/ paralysis with their facial muscles…he was able to show systematically manipulate certain muscle from theier face..ppl cud recognize their emotion Real vs.fake is the eyes(ocular) tht differentiate it from one another w/ in the milisec. Emg-measures contraction of the muscles,the strength..only used when know tht the emotion is subtle..nd not when participants interact When noe tht facial expression very clear-use FAC..given number of all the muscle groups Body posture-shoulders, and head Universal emotion-some are Darwin said tht emotion,directly effected by enviro..helps us with survival,reproduction,raising the young..he argued emoitions were early forms of communication..continuity across species,and unviversatality of how emotions are expressed With the group of methods,took the photographs of us facial expressions to papu new gunea..who wourldn’t be exposed to the emotions of anohr culture…asked them to choose …whole pnt it if could recignize…we cud ebe emotionally connected universally For posed and standard,are well above chance(don’t yield as high accuracy,if hv connection of one-to one); nd dishel method seems to be the most effetciv for cshowing the effects across cultures……but notheless…good evidence tht there is commonality of emotion Culture display rules(when appropriate display) Relational(relatiinps u have around u) For Ekman it is onli the social norm/display rule tht differs b/w culture emotions In japan feel obligated is good(wait for a period of time,then give back), US is tend not to feel obligated(buy coffee way faster for person back) Beduoin-in west tend not to like Morality Moralization(cultural level in canda….smoking..placed a valued judgement on ppl who smoke/not smoke)..taking sumthing at an idivd level to at the societal level… Vegetarian(we don’t necessarily say its good or bad) Wht is moral 1.-harm to others/self 2.- Utilitarian-willing to justify the ends if sufficiently good enough..better to do sumthing bad if the good is greater Deontological-will there be harm Morality based of emotion/affective response based on the situation Reduces complexity-simple nd easy to base emotion rather go thru reasoning cause of hearostics /shortcuts…but still error prone to accuracy Specific types of moral situation evoke specific emotions..Disgust(divinity has to do w/purity nd cleanliness),anger(autonomy-hear bout situation..when sum1 reduce sum1 freedom/right…nd enact harm against them),contempt(refers to community-interersonal relationships//….society.)(looking down at sum1…superiority.inferiority component) Social intuition model(decision making w/morality)…goes purely on gut response;after the fact. …we don’t base morality on logic..set of criteria 1.take the feeling of info- affective response to stimulus 2.rationalization trap-applies to context of moral decision/judgement..answers the why/ Logical morality- ..Usually things are not uquite clear on the emotional side What if we do hv a situation tht have a reason… …for every participant there is a hard decision to make…two responses u want to give..nd when hv conflict…it is reflective of areas of the brain(ACC) cortical alarm bell for conflict of conflict feel b/w emotional nd logical side of things..the decision ultimately make..the ACC has high activity..more difficult the decision the highr acticity/intensity of the ACC Making the unitalirtaratarin agument there is activity in the dorsallateral prefrontal cortex where making in difference in ACC activation it is wheter they simultaneously..largr activation in the APFC exceeds the ACC. When rational decision making..feel aroused Lec7 attraction nd relationship Proximity-how physically close you are to the person..predicts wheteher continue on with them on a relationship MIT(massuchettes institute of technology) residence hall designed for couple dorment;two level apartment building with stairs on each side..wants to predict which couple will likely be friends…Q based on how close ur apartment is close to likely to form a relationship..41% neigbours is friends..22%..two doors away then..likely of friends..2-1% if opp of residence hall…..nd closer stairs too …end up finding tht the morelikely beside each othr…more likely to interact nd become friends -proximity is the baseline big variable for relationships likelihood Availability/accessibility-Judgement how much we like someone we think bout how much we know about them Similarity-ppl who r near us physically…we do hv something in common..but still powr of proximity alone Mere exposure-simply just seeing them(w/even a neutral obj/subliminal level vs..explicit)..initially evulated negative mildly mode,more see=more like (but could also hav negative where person already has hate it..nd i.e. hate song already…heard again..make person more araged) Study-confederate..number of times exposed,multiplied magnitude of liking nd goes up Phtogrpah..-perfer liking of mirror cause we se eourselves everyday in the mirror Complementarity-one person dominant,nd othr person is submissive….opp traits(society says maybe if find one trait similar than more complemented) society have both sides to debate Similarity(birds flock together) Newcomb-(measured personality trait,values…tradition..measure all thigs tht make the person who they are….held proximity constant …figure out if they become friends ovr the yr..nd they did become friends..cause similarity predicted…any degree of similarity lead to degree for ppl to likely become friends… Reciprocal liking Study-self-fulfilling prophecy comes out…(p1 previously thought they like…and p2 thogught don’t like… .research does not support where sum1 don’t like…will like you;playing hard to get don’t work Study on physical attract; (indepdent rating-first step going to blind date…doesn’t matter how attractive u are..but its just how much u wanted to go on a second date with an attractive person) Wht is attarctiv-(women..who were in Romanian..used substances to make puipil largr….so has been going on for a long time) Perceived to be more trustworthy(explicit personality..applying childlike qualitite..babies more innocent) More symmetry the face-the more attractive Mathematically averaged face…as u add mo
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