PSYB10 Final Textbook Terms_.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Ch8 group processes(235-267) Group-collection of 3+ ppl who interact w/ one another and are interdependent, in the sense tht their needs and goals cause them them to rely on one another Social norms-powerful determinants of behavr which may not be shared by the membrs of othr groups to which you belong; if violate too often shunned by othr group members and maybe pressured to leave group Social roles-shared expectations by group members bout how particular ppl in the group are supposed to behave Gender roles- Group cohisiveness-qualities of a group tht bind members together and promote liking among them Social facilitation-tendency for ppl to do bttr on simple tasks,but worse on complex takss, when they are in presence of others and their individ performance can be evaluated Dominant response Social loafing-tendency for ppl to do worse on simpe taks, but better on complex tasks,when they are in the presence of others and their indiv performance cannot be evaluated Deinidivduation-the loosening of normal constraints on behavr when ppl are in a groupmleading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts Process loss-any aspect of group interaction tht inhibits good problem solving Transactive memory-the combined memory of 2 ppl tht is more efficient than the memory of either individ. Group think-in which maintaining group cohisiveness and solidarity is more imp. than considering the facts in a realistic manner Group polarization-tendency for groups to make decisions tht are more extreme than the initial inclinitions of their members Great person theory-certain key personality traits make a person a good leader,regardless of the situation the leader faces Transace=tional leaders-leaders who set clear,short-term goals and reward ppl who meet them Transformational leaders-leaders who inspire followers to focus on common long-term goals Contingency theory of leadership-leadership effectiveness depends on both on how task-oriented the leader is,and on the amount of control and influence the leader has over the group Task-oriented leader-who is concerned more with getting the job done than with the feelings of relationships among workers Relationship-orientated leader-concerned primarily w/ the feeling of and relationships among the workers Social-dilemma-conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individ,if chosen by most ppl,will hv harmful effects on everyone Tit-for Tat- strategy-means of encouraging cooperation at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did(i.e.,cooperativelt/competitively) on the previous trial Negotiation-form of communication b/w opposing sides in a conflict,In which offers and counter-offers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree. Integrative solution-the parties make trade-offs on issues according to their diff interests;each side concedes the most on issues tht are unimp to it,but imp to the other side Ch4 social perception(89-100) Social perception-study of how we form impressions of othr ppl and make inferences bout them Non-verbal communication-way in which ppl communicate intentionally/unintent,w/o words;non-verbl cues incl. facial expressions,tone of voice,getures,body position and movment,use of touch,and eye gaze Encode-expree or emit nonverbal behavr,such as smiling or patting on the back Decode-intepret the meaning of the nonverbal behavr othr ppl express,such as deciding tht a pat on bck was espression of condescension and not kindness Affect blend-facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registersa diff emotion. Display rules-culturally determined rules bout which emotional expressions are appropriate to show Emblems-nonverbal gestures tht hv well-understood definitions w/in a given culture; they usually hc direct verbal translations,such as the ‘ok’ sign Ch9 interpersonal attraction(271-307) Propinquity effect-the finding tht more we see and interact w/ppl,the more likely they are to become our friends Mere exposure effect-finding tht more exposure we hv to a stimulus, the more apt we are to like it Similarity-attraction to ppl who are like us Complementarity-attraction to ppl who are opp. To us Reciprocal liking-when you like someone and tht person also likes you Misattricbution of arousal-the process whereby ppl make mistaken infernces bout wht is casuing them to feel the way they do Companionanate love-feelings of intimacy and affection we feel towards someone w/ whom our lives are deeply intertwines Passionate love-feelings of intense longing,accompanied by physiological arousal,we feel for another person;when ourlove is reciprocated,we feel great fulfilment and ecstasy;but,when it is not,we feel sadness and despair Evulotionary approach-derived from evulotionary bio states tht men and women are attracted to diff characteristics in each othr-men attracted by owmens appearance;women are attracted by mens resources-cause this maximizes their reproductive success Attachment theory-our behavr in adult relationship is based on our experiences as infants w/ our parents/caregivers Attachment styles-expectations ppl develop bout relationships w/others based on the relationship they had w/ their primary caregiver wen they were infants Secure attatchment style-characterized by trust,a lack of concern with being abodoned,and the view tht one is wprthy and well liked Avoidant attatchmnt style- charc=acterized by a suppression of attachment needs,cause attempts to be intimate have been rebuffed;ppl with this style find it difficult to develop intimate relationships Anxious/ambivalent attatchment style-characterized by concern tht others will not reciprocate one’s desire of intimacy,resulting in highr-than-avrg lvls of anciety Fearful avoidant style-type of avoidant attatchment in which close relationships are avoided cause of mistrust and fears of being hurt Dismissive avoidant style-type of avoidant attachment in which the person is self-sufficient and claims not to need close relationships Social exchange theory-how ppl feel bout a relationship depends on their perceptions of the rewards and costs of the relationship, the kind of relationship they deserve,and the probability tht they could hv a better relationship w/someone else Reward/cost ratio-notion tht there is balance b/w the rewards tht come from a relationship and the personal cost of maintain the relationship; if the ratio is not favourable, the result is dissatisfaction w/ the relationship Comparison lvl-ppl expectations bout the levels of rewards and costs tht they deserve in a relationship Comparison level for alternatives-ppls expectations bout the level of rewards and punishments they would receive in an alternatev relationship Investment model-theory tht ppl commitment to a relationship depends on their satisfaction w/ the relationship in temrs of rewards,costs and comparison lvl for alternatives; and how much they have invested in the relat
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