Complete PSYB10 Review Sheet for FINAL

84 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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•   Socio-­‐evaluative  Threat   o     Extreme  form  of:  Evaluation  Apprehension   •   Still  the  same  concern  about  being  judged/evaluated  except  this  time  your  body  goes  into  a  state  of   threat  (Challenge/Threat  Appraisals)   o     Body  responds  with  the  stress  hormone,  cortisol  (ie.  Body  initiates  stress  response  to  Socio -­‐evaluate  threat)     • Cortisol  constricts  blood  vessels  in  hippocampus,inhibiting  memory  and  learning,    linguistic  complexity   • Greater  the  amount  of  conern,  the  more  EA  assumed  to  have  =  more  arousal  &  intense  the  experience  would  be   for  u     o This  stress  response  inhibits  our  ability  to  per form  well,  therefore  end  up  not  performing  well       Group  Decision  Making   SOCIAL  LOAFING,  FACILITATION   -­‐ applies  to  performance  in  presence  of  being  alone  vs.  with  others  as  well       -­‐ contrast:  GROUP  DECISION  MAKING   o how  group  affects  decision  you  make   as  a  group   Group  Polarization   •   Tendency  for  groups  to  make  decisions  that  are  more   extreme  than  the  initial  inclination  of  their  group  members   • Can  be  a  shift  to  either  greater  risk  or  greater  caution     • Has  both  informational  and  normative  explanations   o Normative  –  want  to  get  along  with  group,  so  have  to  operate  w/in  its  norms  &  roles   o Informational  –  turning  to  group  members  to  check  our  own  knowledge     •   I.e.,final  decision  is  EXTREME!    Could  be  a  riskier  decision  or  a  more  conservative  than  the  Individuals  group  memb ers   WOULD     -­‐  have  made  polarize  ourselves  one  way  or  another  to  extremes     Group  think     •   "'A  mode  of  thinking  that  people  engage  in  when  they  are  deeply  involved  in  a  cohesive  in -­‐group,  when  the  members'   striving  for  unanimity  override  their  motivation  to   realistically  appraise  alternative  courses  of  action"   -­‐  way  of  thinking  where  people   are  very  involved  in  a  cohesive  in -­‐group,  such  that  the  members  are  aiming  for   consensus,  and  this  aim  supersedes  their  motivation  to  realistically  assess  alternative  cour ses  of  action.       o     Extreme  form  of  Group  Polarization   -­‐ During  the  moment  of  decision  making,  you  are  likely  to  see  groupthink  when  the  following  are  seen:     Antecedent=  "something  that  comes  before  ,something  that  will  lead  up  to  the  state  of  group  think   1. highly  cohesive     -­‐  ex.  NASA  –  higher-­‐ups  worked  together  everyday  for  long  periods  of  time  in  high  stress  environments     2. isolation   -­‐ ie.  Isolated  from  other  group  members   -­‐ ex.  NASA  –  managers  who  were  oversseeing  the  launch  of  spaceship  (higher -­‐ups)  were  cut  off  from  everybody  else     3. directive  leader   -­‐ one  person  In  charge  of  gorup  whom  is  v.authoritarian   -­‐ so  behaves  like  “this  is  what  we  need  to  do”,  “this  is  what  we  need  to  not  know”     o guides  conversation  among  things     4. high  stress     -­‐  higher  stress  the  envirnmt  is  =>  more  inetnse  decision  that’ll  be  made  =>  more  likely  to  see  bad  decisions     5. non-­‐structured  decision-­‐making  procedures   =>  they  sat  down  at  table  and  said  “hey  lets  make  a  deciison  right  now”   ß  took  on  this  sort  of  style  (immediately  getting   down  to  a  decision,  instead  of  going  through  every  group  members’  opinon  &  making  decision  in  reasonable,  rational   manner  based  on  opinions  of  group  members)     Symptoms  =things    that  go  on  during  the  decision  making  process     1.  Illusion  of  invulnerability   =  group  feels  that  it  is  invincible  and  can  do  no  wrong  –  ex.  NASA  –  NASA  higher  ups   considered  best  of  the  best  so  viewed  themselves  that  way  &  so  did  everybody  else  =>  cannot  possibly  make  a  bad   decision  b/c  they  were  so  smart     2.  Group  is  morally  correct   –  “God  is  on  our  side”    ie.  Feel  they  are  righteous,  then  they  don’t  evaluate  possibility   that  they  are  making  decision  that  is  wrong,  b/c  overpowered  by  idea  that  they’re  correct   3.  Outgroup  is  stereotyped  –  opposing  views  are  viewed  in  simplistic,  stereotypic  manner  ex.  NASA  –  stereotypes   that  higher-­‐ups  held  about  engineers  –  their  close-­‐minded,  too  focused  on  nuances  <   -­‐-­‐  way  of  derogating  those  that   brought  forth  concerns     4.  Self-­‐censorship  –  ppl  decide  themselves  not  to  voice  contradictory  opinions  b/c  they  don’t  w ant  to  “rock  the  
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