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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lecture 5: Group Processes  Group: a collection of 2 or more people who interact with each other and are interdependent— their needs and goals cause them to rely on each other Social Groups o Groups have social norms to guide behaviour o Groups have well-defined social roles o Vary in level of group cohesiveness o Difference b/w social and non-social groups: interaction and interdependence  Social norms: a group’s prescriptions for the behaviours, values, and beliefs of its members o If members don’t follow norms, they will be punished/rejected  Social roles: a group’s expectations of how subgroups of the group should behave (responsibilities) o Potential costs: individual personality may be taken over by power of role o If roles are violated, other group members disapprove (kick out of position)  Group cohesiveness: the level of closeness and similarity which a group is or is perceived to be o In the minds of group members: cohesiveness increases liking and in-group favouritism o In the minds of outsiders: cohesiveness increases stereotyping of group members o The more cohesive, the more its members will stay in the group and take part in group activities How Do Groups Affect Us?  Social facilitation and social loafing o Social facilitation: to perform better at simple and well-known tasks in the presence of others and to perform worse on complex tasks in the presence of others o Social loafing: to perform better at complex tasks when in a group and to perform worse on simple tasks when in a group o Social loafing & social facilitation created by an interaction of 3 factors: evaluation, arousal, task complexity (SEE DIAGRAM) o Evaluation Apprehension: concern about being evaluated/judged o Social-evaluative threat (ex: speech anxiety) o Extreme evaluation apprehension: can cause mild arousal o Body responds with the stress hormone, cortisol which constricts blood vessels in hippocampus, inhibiting memory and learning (cannot perform to your ability)  Group Decision Making o Group polarization: when a group makes more extreme decisions than the group’s initial inclinations  Can be a shift to either greater risk or greater caution  Has informational and normative explanations; larger groups make riskier decisions o Group think: when cohesiveness is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner; it causes group to make extreme decisions, ignoring possible alternatives  Occurs when:  1-group cohesiveness is highly valued  2-presnece of a directive leader who makes his/her wishes known  3- isolated from contrary opinions  How to prevent group think  Devil’s advocate: someone who makes an argument for every point  Get opinions from outsiders: they will give more true opinions b/c they’re not concerned with the group cohesiveness  Enter opinions in a ballot: members will give more true opinions b/c they are being anonymous  Create subgroups which suggest ideas to the group as a whole: creates little groups of dissent, diversity o ANTECEDENTS, SYMPTOMS, CONSEQUENCES o Jury decision making  Predeliberation errors: agreeing with the majority instead of arguing with members  Cascade effect: when initial member’s vote influences everyone’s decision Deindividuation o When a person loses his/her individuality b/c their role has taken them over o Occurs in: o Crowds o When physically anonymous o Group chanting or stomping o Leads to an increase in impulsive and deviate acts Destructive Cults o A social group centered around devotion to a particular person/thing/idea that employs unethical techniques of manipulation or control o SEE DESTRUCTIVE CULTS CHARACTERISTICS Lecture 6: Emotion and Morality Emotion  What is an emotion: a brief physiological and psychological a response to an event felt subjectively and prepares a person for action  What is not an emotion: moods, sentiments, personality traits, arousal o Why not mood: moods are diffuse (no stimulus);you don’t know what caused the mood  Don’t need to have an elicting cause  Don’t need to have a target o Moods may not call for an action o They persist over time—lasts long time (1 hr)  Basic Emotions: fear, anger, happiness, surprise, disgust, sadness  Complex emotions o Blends of basic emotions o Positive emotions: positively-valenced emotions (mostly complex)  Gratitude, contentment, amusement, desire, love o Self-conscious emotions: complex emotions elicited by the self; refers to you  Pride, shame, guilt, embarrassment Emotions (SEE DIAGRAM)  Self-report  Facial EMG: used to trying to pick up subtle emotions; best used when facial movement is not visually detectable  Facial action coding system (FACS) o codes overt facial expressions o numbers all facial muscle actions; o classifies emotions as patterns of muscle actions that occur together Components of Emotion  Temporal: short-lived  Physiological o Emotions in peripheral nervous system  Sympathetic & Parasympathetic nervous system  Skin conductance: the more electricity your skin conducts, the more arousal  Pre-ejection period: time b/w your heart beats electrically and when it pushes blood  Finger temperature: high when you’re relaxed  Indicates degree of arousal o Emotions in central nervous system  Limbic system  Amygdala: fear and anger  Hippocampus: laughter  Frontal cortex  Everything else o Proper inference  Physiological profiles & locations help us understand arousal, intensity and possible circuits  Emotions cannot be identified by examining physiological states o James-Lange theory of emotion  Specific bodily response tells us what emotion we are feeling  Eventspecific bodily responsesubjective emotion o Directed Facial Action Task (SEE SLIDES)  Cognitive o The meaning of an event affects our emotional response to it o Key appraisals for eliciting emotion  Self-relevance: how relevant an event is to you  Goal congruence: how much an event affects your goals  Blame and responsibility: meaning to do it vs. not meaning to do it  Certainty: not fully positive that you appraised something correctly  Coping ability how much you’re able to cope with the situation o Two-factor theory of emotion  Physiological arousal is generalized, not specific  We apply a label to the arousal based on cognitive appraisal  Eventgeneral arousal + appraisalemotion o Two-factor theory of love  Romantic attraction=unexplained arousal + attribution of that arousal to romantic partner  The bridge study  Behavioural o Facial display o Body posture o Vocal tone: saying the same thing in 2 different tones o Touch o Action: approach or avoid Universality of Emotion  Prototypical expression of emotion appear to be universally recognizable and producible, however cultural display rules apply  Influence how, when, and to whom emotions are expressed o Situational context o Relational context o Intensity  Culturally-specific emotions o Japanese amae(pleasure from depending on someone else), German schadenfreude (pleasure from the misfortune of others , Bedouin hasham (pleasure from humility) Morality  Moralization o The transformation of preferences to values  Moral reasoning o Kohlberg’s stages of moral development  Preconventional stage: based on rewards and punishment  1-obedience and punishment orientation  2-self-interest orientation  Conventional stage: based on societal expectations  3-interpersonal accord and conformity: stay with your culture’s morality; social roles being accepted/not  4-authority and social-order maintaining orientation  Post-conventional stage: based on personal principles  5-social contract orientation: laws are social contracts; should be changed when they don’t meet the greatest good for the greatest number of people  6-universal ethical principles orientation: doing what is right, in the other person’s shoes  Moral emotions o Feelings as information: emotions used as information when making judgements o Functionality of emotion-based reasoning  Reduces complexity: don’t need to evaluate all criteria (only your feelings)  Rapid decision making o Moral triad of emotions  Disgust  Anger  Contempt o Social intuitionist model  Two steps of moral reasoning  1-make more judgement based on emotional reaction  2-try to come up with acceptable justification for that reaction  Dual-process theory of moral judgement o Emotional process o Utilitarian process (ex: one person dying is better than 20)  Heightened activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DPFC) o When both utilitarian and emotional arguments are strong, there is conflict  Heightened activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)  People who choose utilitarian argument: activation in DPFC > ACC Lecture 7: Initial Attraction and Close Relationships Initial Attraction  Proximity o Propinquity effect: the more we see and interact with other people, the more likely we are to become friends o Functional distance: certain aspects of architectural design that make it likely that people will come into contact with each other more often o Why does proximity promote attraction?  Availability/accessibility  It suggests similarity: people we run into more often, we believe that they are very similar to us  Mere exposure  Familiarity: we like things that we are more familiar with o Mere-exposure: the more exposure you get to a neutral object, the more you will like it  Does not apply if the object has negative qualities o Mere-exposure to your own face  We tend to prefer our mirror image over photograph image b/c we see ourselves in the mirror more than a photograph  Friends prefer photograph image b/c they see more of our photographs  Similarity or Complementarity? o Similarity: “birds of a feather flock together” o Complementarity: “opposites attract” o Research supports the idea that similarity promotes liking: it validates that our beliefs are true  Reciprocity o We like people better who like us o Picking up subtle liking cues—we like people better if they do these cues  Eye contact  Leaning in  Attentive listening  Mimicry o However, not true for people with low self-esteem/negative self-concept  Attractiveness o What is attractive in men: large eyes, strong cheekbones, large chin, big smile
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