Social Psychology study notes final.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

1 Social Psychology Chapter 8: Group Processes Group: collection of two or more people who interact with each other (talk, shake hands) and are interdependent (needs and goals cause them to rely on each other) ex. sports teams, churches -Types of groups: non-social (ex. a bunch of ppl standing in linebecomes social if there is a car accident & ppl start talking to each other) vs. social groups (interacting, interdependence) •Social groups (have social norms to guide behavior, social roles & vary in level of group cohesiveness) 1 •Social norms (a groups prescriptions for the behavior, values & beliefs of the members) 2 •Social roles (groups expectations for the behavior/responsibilities +=helps group function; -= individual personality may be taken over by the power of role (ex. Stanford Prison Experiment) 3 •Group cohesiveness (qualities of a group that bind members together & promote liking among them; degree to which group is/is perceived to be close knit & similar ex. sorority)minds of group members: cohesiveness promotes liking & ingroup favouritism; minds of others: cohesiveness increases stereotyping of group members Destructive groups (Cults) -Characteristics of destructive cults: charismatic leader(s), leaders are self-appointed, leader is focus of worship, group culture toward totalitarianism (everyone has to act certain way), group has 2 or more sets of ethics, group presents itself as innovative & exclusive, main goals of recruitment & fundraising •Deindividuation: loosening of normal constraints on behavior when ppl are in a group, leading to increase in impulsive/deviant acts; person loses sense of himself as an individual (occurs: in crowds, when physically anonymous ex. KKK, & group chanting/stomping…effects: ex. anon bullying cause teen suicides How do groups affect us: 1. *social facil & loaf created by individ evaluation, arousal & task complexity •Social facilitation: performance to be improved doing simple well-learned tasks (simple arousal), worse on complex tasks (complex arousal) in the presence of others & their individual performance is evaluated (evaluation apprehension) •Social loafing: performance worse on simple tasks (relaxation simple), better on complex (relaxation complex) in presence of others & their individual performance is not evaluated (no evaluation apprehension) 2. •Group decision making •Group think: maintain group cohesiveness & solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner (ex. NASA & teacher) Characteristics: -Antecedents (highly cohesive, isolated, directive leader) -Symptoms (outgroup stereotype, group is correct, illusion of unamity, illusion of invulnerability) -Consequences (poor info search, incomplete survey of alternatives) Chapter 4: Emotion & Morality Emotions: Brief physiological & psycho response to an event that is felt subjectively & prepares a person for action *What is not an emotion?  affective states/moods (sentiments ex. wishing someone well, affective personality traits ex. she is a cheerful person, & by itself level of arousal ex. sleepiness) 1.6 basic emotions fear, anger, disgust, sadness, happiness, surprise *dominance of more negative emotions b/c it helps us survive 2 2.Complex emotions (blends of basic emotions) positive= gratitude, contentment, amusement, desire & love… Self-conscious= pride, shame, guilt & embarrassment Measuring emotions 1. Self-report 2.Nonverbal communication cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body, touch & eye gaze ** JUST WITHOUT WORDS Encoding: to express nonverbal behavior (ex. smiling) Decoding: interpret meaning of nonverbal (ex. smiling was amusement not happy) *decoding can be inaccurate by affect blends (one part of the face is registering one emotion & other part of face is registering a diff. emotion) 3.Facial action muscles genuinely happy= orbicularis oculi (round muscles around eye) & zygomaticus major (cheek pull mouth involved w. smiles)…fake happy=just zygo; negative= levator labii (muscles around to wrinkle nose in discust0 & currogator supercilii (eyebrow) 4.Emotional facial displayseven if not easily visible, emotions still are detectable (through small movements by EMG…obtrusive measurement) 5.Facial Action Coding System classify emotions as patterns of muscle actions that occur together Time span of emotion -Real emotions= 500ms-4s -Fake emotions= 1-10s *An emotion can appear to persist if the emotional stimulus is presented repeatedly *Not all emotions have same duration: surprise=briefest; happiness, discust & sadness= standard length; anger & fear=last a bit longer Physiological component •Peripheral nervous system heart rate, skin, finger temperature •Central nervous systemlimbic=amygdala (fear, anger), hypothalamus (laughter) & frontal cortex=everything else (therefore these are more advanced emotions) *must have physiological symptoms to be emotion BUT emotion can’t be identified just by physio rates (but you can measure intensity of arousal) James-Lange Theory of Emotion Every emotion has a distinct pattern of physio responses that characterizes it (eventspecific physio profile responsesubjective emotion) ex. see a bearsweat, runbecome afraid *Ekman (directed facial action task) pose facial muscles in certain ways, ask what face they’re making, measure physio; results= person made face, then person’s physio matched to the face they were making aka made angry face, amygdala lit up Cognitive component The meaning of an event affects our emotional response to it (ex. perceive a hit to the face as he meant to hurt you= you feel anger, or perceive it as a joke= amusement) •Cognitive appraisals: self-relevance, goal congruence, blame & responsibility, certainty, & coping Two-Factor Theory of Emotion Physio arousal is generalized, not specific (apply label to arousal based on APPRAISAL) …eventgeneral arousal+appraisalemotion (ex. bearmy heart is pounding+bears are dangerousI’m scared!) Misattribution of arousal: mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do 3 (Dutton & Aron): if you are on a high scary bridge, you will be aroused and will mistakenly think some of this arousal is the result of attraction to the woman *half of the men who were approached on the high bridge phoned the woman later, whereas few phoned her when they met on a sturdy bridge Behavioural component •Facial display •Body posture •Vocal tone •Touch •Actionaction tendencies (approach/avoid the emotional stimulus) …anger=approach, fear=avoid, disgust=avoid, happiness=approach *functional service of emotions Universality/Functionality of emotions •Adaptive value of emotionssolve problems of survival, reproduction, raising young; expression evolved before language…there is continuity between species & universality within species •Ekmancollege kids vs. ppl of new Guinea who never had experience with people; results: universally recognizable BUT cultural display rules are different in situational context (ex.North American funerals=sad, other=smile), relational context (who you’re affected by) & intensity •Culturally-specific emotionssome argue emotions are culturally constructed/specific (ex. Japanese pleasant feeling of depending on someone [negative in North America], German pleasant feeling of misfortune to others) Morality: •Moralization (transformation of preferences to values ex. cultural level=cigarette smoking, individual level=vegetarianism •Moral reasoning (utilitarian= base moral decisions on outcomes of action aka can be bad as long as outcome is good ex. killing someone then jailtime….deontological= base moral on reduction of harm ex. killing someone) Moral emotions: Reasoning process that is influenced by emotion  Feelings as information (emotions used as info when making judgments ex. I feel good…I must like this person; reduces complexity [makes easy to judge] & rapid decision making)  “Moral triad” of emotions (specific moral violations elicit specific emotions…1.disgust [elicit by violation of divinity/holiness ex. 70yr old sex w. 15 yr old], 2. Anger [from autonomy/independence ex. man beats his wife] 3. Contempt [by community ex. teen refuse to yield seat to elder] )  Social Intuitionist Model (2 steps of moral reasoning: make moral judgment based on emotion reaction 2. Try to come up w. acceptable justification for that reaction) Dual-process theory of moral reasoning *2 types of reasoning processes involved in the MOMENT of the moral decision: •Emotional processes •Utilitarian/practical processes Neural structures involved in emotional/rational moral reasoning Heightened activity in Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) when making difficult moral decisions…ppl who choose utilitarian is greater in DPFC (planning/reasoning) than ACC 4 Chapter 9: Initial Attraction & Close Relationships 1.Proximity *one of the strongest predictors for telling if we’re gonna like someone Propinquity effect: The more we see and interact with other people, the more likely we are to become our friends 2.Familiarity Mere-exposure: The more exposure you get to a neutral object, the more you will like it (ex. subliminally primed w. random shapes, turns out they preferred the prime shapes over the non prime) *Does not apply if the object has negative qualities 3.Similarity vs. complementarity (comp: “Opposites attract” vs. Similarity - “Birds of a feather flock together” research supports the idea that similarity promotes liking 4.•Reciprocity (We like people better who like us; subtle liking cues=Eye contact, Leaning in, Attentive listening, Mimicry…*Less true for people with low self-esteem/negative self-concept). 5 •Attractiveness -What is attractive Men: Large eyes, strong cheekbones, large chin, big smile; Women: Large eyes, small nose, prominent cheekbones and narrow cheeks, high eyebrows, large pupils, big smile **TRUE FOR ALL CULTURES -Symmetrymore attractive if symmetrical -Averageness more faces combined are more attractive b/c more familiar/prototypical & more symmetrical *why multicultural ppl are attractive -Babyfacedness Features: Large eyes, rounder face and nose; Baby-faced people: Are more persuasive, Perceived to be more trustworthy, Evoke liking and caregiving behaviours Beautifulness-is-good Stereotype: Tendency to associate attractiveness with “goodness” 6. Matching hypothesis: We seek partners that are of similar attractiveness to us, and are more satisfied with these partners 7. •Scarcity: If potential mates are not plentiful, we may shift our standards of attractiveness Close Relationships •Evolutionary fitness: Potential to pass on your genes/successfully procreate Ability to survive to mating years, Ability to maximize the number of offspring that survive to their mating years •PolygamySeveral members of one sex mating with one individual of the other sex (Polygyny: Several females mate with one male [90% of mammals]/ Polyandry: Several males mate with one female Monogamy Reproductive partnership based on permanent tie between partners; Sexes are close to blurry/indistinguishable based on physical characteristics •Reproductive investment: The “investment” of time, resources, and risk involved in having each child (The sex which bears the most reproductive costs is “choosier”)  Sexual “Choosiness”: Choosy Sex= Bears the most reproductive costs/investment, Usually the female; Sex with least reproductive costs= wants more partners, is in competition for mates, Displays greater physical variation (ex. male peacocks are more colorful than female) •Sexual dimorphism: Pronounced difference in the size of the two sexes (Seen in polygamous animals) • Biological basis of monogamy: Monogamous animals= Oxytocin (attachment hormone) and Dopamine (reward) receptors share nucleus accumbens; Polygamous animals= No oxytocin receptors in nucleus accumbens Homosexuality Reproductive partnerships between members of the same sex (common in animals, Usually associated with disproportionate number of male and female mating adults •Polygamous and monogamous features of humans 5 Polygamy evidence: Sexual dimorphism, Great physical variation & 85% of traditional cultures allow polygamy Monogamy evidence: Co-occurence of Oxytocin & Dopamine in human brain, Great physical variation among both sexes, surveys for both sexes wanting one partner Need to belong Belonging is a basic human motivation Sociometer theory: Human “survival tactics” require several people (E.g., building shelters, hunting game)* Human children are helpless for several years -Social isolation (Long-term isolation is a form of official torture/punishment in every society, Social rejection is an unofficial way to enforce social rules in every society)  Harlow’s Monkeys: Dramatic disturbances after 3 months; Huddling alone, rocking, self-mutilation, Incompetent (often abusive) parenting… Negative impact of isolation could be reduced through Therapist monkey Attachment Theory •Imprinting: bond which occurs shortly after birth among many Species *Must occur within the “sensitive period”; Animals show distress when imprinted object has been removed •Adult Attachment: Adult romantic relationships function like care-giverchild attachment relationships (Prefer proximity, with distress upon separation, turn to partner for support when stressed/ in danger, Derive security from partner enabling exploration of the rest of the world) Attachment styles: 1.Secure ex. I find it easy to get close to others. I don’t worry about being abandoned 2.Anxious-Ambivalent ex. I worry that my partner doesn’t love me. I want to merge completely with another person. 3• Avoidant ex. I am uncomfortable being close to others; I dont trust them, it’s difficult to depend on them. (Fearful avoidant= avoid b/c afraid of being hurt/mistrust… dismissive= avoid b/c person claims to be self-sufficient & doesn’t need anyone) … Now we think of attachment in terms of two continuous dimensions: 1. Attachment Avoidance 2. Attachment Anxiety Closeness •Cognitive Component 1. Self-expansion theory: The experience of closeness is an overlap of our self-concept with our concept of a close other aka“Inclusion-of-Other-in-Self” (Information about close others are closely associated with self-related information *Make more situational attributions for self and close others [ex. oh Graham hit me b/c he is just mad today] *Make more dispositional attributions for non-close others [ex. Adam hit me b/c he is an asshole]) 2. Interdependence Theory/Investment Model: - 3 Components of Commitment: 1. Satisfaction (perceived rewards, costs, and comparison level) 2. Quality of Alternatives 3. Resource Investment Commitment = (↑Satisfaction)+(↓Quality of Alternatives)+(↑Resource Investment) 6 3. Social Exchange Theory: feel about a relationship depends on perception of rewards/cost, kind of relationship they deserve, & chances of having better relationship w. someone else Theories of Love 1.Companionate Love Feelings of intimacy and affection we feel when we care deeply for a person, but without sexual arousal or passion (Can exist between lovers or friends, valued in all cultures) 2.Passionate Love Feelings of intense longing for a person, usually w. physiological arousal “Idealization” of close others; seeing them as more positive than they see themselves: couples who maintain positive illusions of their partner: Decreasing instances of conflict, Increasing satisfaction, Decreasing doubts about the relationship, Were more likely to be together at the end of the year •Co-operative dilemmas: when one partner behaves destructively, it is best to accommodate (focus on long term goals)= constructive than focus on short term goals and talk back= destructive Relationship Dissolution •What couples do well: Married after age 20, similar age, Grew up in 2-parent homes, Dated for a long time but did not live together, Same level of education, Good income, same religion, equality & sex often arguments rare *novel experiences (sharing new experiences) is good •Why relationships fail: Low Equity, Lack of Positive Illusions, Low interdependence, Boredom - Lack of novel activities/ sex, money & kidssatisfy w. first child, dips to pre-child when empty nest but will boost when both kids leave house •How relationships fail: Friendships= passive strategies (Avoidance or withdrawal); Romantic Relationships= direct strategies (Direct confrontation) Rejection •Neurochemical basis of rejection: Physical Pain= Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) (Associated with “distress signal”) & Right Ventral Prefrontal Cortex (rvPFC)(Associated with regulation and inhibition of felt pain)… social rejection= activity in ACC and rvPFC during social rejection *Tylenol participants reported less hurt feelings on days when they experienced social rejection than the placebo people Reading: Culture, Social Power & Hierarchy Culture: An ever-changing (dynamic) constructive (influenced by members of the culture) stimulus which shapes (influences members of the culture) the way individuals perceive and contribute to the world Nationality: The country you were born in Ethnicity: Your cultural heritage Identification: The degree to which you include group membership in your self-concept/ sense of who you are What culture gives to us: Meaning System (Symbols, language, experiences) Describing Cultures: 1. Individualist (Emphasize personal achievement, even at the expense of others [Greater emphasis on Competition E.g., Canada, Western Europe])…Fish is ahead b/c he is a leader 7 OR/AND Collectivist (Emphasize social roles and collective responsibilities, even at the expense of the individual [Greater emphasis on cooperation E.g., China])…Fish is .. *these are dimensional; can be some indiv. Some collect; most are high this & low that- unique is Japan (high collect & high indiv) 2. Political climate Political structure greatly constrains behaviour (Sometimes gov. change can extinguish a culture) 3. Religious beliefs: Dominant religious beliefs characterize a culture’s moral reasoning and motivations 4. Ecological: Environmental context shapes the development/ focus of a culture Language Issues •Translation Efficacy (i.e., “Lost in Translation?”)while we may call objects by diff. names, we group them similarly Back translation: translate a word/sentence multiple times between 2 languages until both translations yield same phrase… trans from lang 1lang 2, trans lang 2lang 1, repeat until all discrepancies have been fixed How Does Culture Affect Us? 1.Cognitive Mechanisms Cognitive Framing: The perceptual framework through which you view the world (Affects the attributions made for events)  Cultural Primes Priming someone with a familiar icon of their culture will temporarily increase their identification with that culture Dialectical thinking :A cognitive reasoning structure through which an individual interprets the environment • 3 principles: • Change: Everything is in flux / constantly changing vs. Linear: things are stable • Contradiction: Opposing propositions may both be true • Wholism: Everything is interrelated/interdependent *ex: linear= for example is no proof, dialectical= beware of your friends not your enemies 2. Affect •Emotional Complexity (The experience of many emotions at the same time, especially if those emotions are a mixture of positive and negative feelings) 3. Cultural Behaviour: •Social Norms •Social Roles Moving Between Cultures 1.Acculturation (Successful integration of the heritage of two Cultures; Adoption of new culture by incorporating value systems of both new and original cultures) 2.Assimilation (Complete adoption of a new culture and simultaneous rejection of original culture) •Bicultural Identity Integration: Degree to which two cultural identities are integrated into a super- ordinate bicultural identity2 Key Components= Perceived Harmony vs. Conflict (whether you think the 2 cultures are harmonious or not) & Perceived Similarity vs. Distance (whether you think they’re similar or not) Benet-Martínez (high BII=primed when enter your culture ex. if youre Italian-canadian, enter Canadian situation then you act Canadian) experiment: Chinese-Americans; primed w. internal fish, they 8 act American, when external, they act Chinese (high BII)…low BII when internal fish but act Chinese, visa versa Social Power & Hierarchy Social Hierarchy: An implicit/ explicit rank order of individuals/ groups with respect to a valued social dimension •Formal Hierarchy Explicitly-set social roles that vary by rank order, w.higher-ranking roles holding greater value (People move between roles, but the hierarchy exists apart); ex. Job titles * Sources of value in higher-ranked positions: Control over resources (Power), Respect from subordinates (Status) •Informal Hierarchy Rank-ordering of individuals/ groups that develops organically on at least one valued social dimension (No clearly-delineated social roles) * Sources of value in higher-ranked positions: Influence over group decisions (Power), Greater attention from others (Status) Social Power: An asymmetric control over valued resources in social relations Social Status: The extent to which an individual/ group is respected by others (entirely in the eyes of others) Functions of Hierarchy Establishes social order and facilitates co-ordination; Provides incentives for indi
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