PSYB10 chapter 1-12 textbook notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

1) Introduction to Social Psychology 8/20/2013 3:34:00 AM Social psychology: the scientific study of the way in which people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people. The power of social interpretation  Construal: the way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social world. Some alternative ways of understanding social influence  People are not aware of origins of their own responses (that’s why they join cults/ inflict pain on themselves)  Folk wisdom/common sense. Disagree with each other. Birds fly together. Opposite attract. Mostly wrong/oversimplified.  Hypothesis: educated guesses. Social psychology compared with sociology.  Social psychologist: level of analysis is the individual in the context of social situation. Why people hurt each other: social psychologist focuses on processes that trigger aggression.  Sociology concerned with broad societal factors that influence events in a given society. Social class/structure/institutions.  Difference: sociology- rather than focus on psychology focus on macro-large society. Level of analysis reflects another difference between disciplines-what they are trying to explain.  The goal of social psychology is to identify universal properties of human nature that make everyone susceptible to social influence, regardless of social class/culture. –laws governing frustration/aggression.  Social psychology is cross-cultural research.  Similarity: sociology interested in aggressive behavior, but concerned with society that produces the different levels/ type of aggression. Psychologist would ask: is frustration needed? Sociologist would ask; why is US more higher aggression than Canada. Social psychology compared with personality psychology.  Individual differences: aspects of people’s personalities that make them different from other people.  Sociology; PROVIDES GNEERAL LAWS AND THEORIES ABOUT SOCIETIES, NOT INDIVIDUAL  Social psychology: studies the psychological processes people have in common with one another that make them susceptible to social influence  Personality psychology: studies the characteristics that make individual unique and different form one another.  Social psychology shares with sociology: interest in situational/societal influences on behavior but focus on psychological rather than social.  Social psychology shares with personality psychology: psychology of individual but rather than focus on what makes people different, focus on psychological processes shared by most people that make them susceptible to social influence The power of social influence.  Fundamental attribution error: tendency to overestimate the extent to which people’s behavior stems from internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors- explain people’s behavior in personality trait and underestimating social influence. Underestimating the power of social influence  When we underestimate social influence, we feel false security. Solar temple-where priest told people to drink acid to kill himself or herself. We would believe this could never happen. But by not understanding the power, we oversimplify and decrease our understanding of social forces. Eg2: Wall Street game vs. community game. Same game different name. Where you can choose to compete the money or split with friend.  Social and environmental situation are powerful effect on people. Wall street game: more people compete. Community game: more people share The subjectivity of social situation  Behaviorism: school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment-that is, how positive and negative events in the environment are associated with specific behaviors. Children learn better when praised. Skinner: rewards/punishment. Does not deal with cognition/thinking/feeling. Because too vague.  Gestalt psychology: school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people’s mind rather than objective physical attributes of the object. How people look at a painting. By Kurt koffka/wolfgang kohler/max Wertheimer-how are you feeling  Social psychology does need cognition/thinking/feeling. Where construal’s come from: basic human motives  The need to accurate and the need to feel good about ourselves  Opposite direction: we perceive to face up to fact that we behave foolishly  Leon fastener=social psychologist: 2 motives are tug in opposite direction of human heart and mind. The self-esteem approach: the need to feel good about ourselves  Self-esteem; people’s evaluation of their own self=worth. Extent to which they view themselves as good/competent/decent  Justifying past behavior: often taken option: put a different spin to fact. E.g. divorce because wife accused to cheat. Roger views himself normal  Suffering and self-justification. Jean-François hazing. Human beings are motivated to maintain a positive picture of themselves, in part by justifying their past behavior and that under certain specific conditions, this leads them to do things that at first glance might seem surprising- e.g. they may prefer people/things for whom they have suffered over people and things associate with pleasure. The social cognition approach: the need to be accurate  It is impossible to observe cognitive development of a child without surprise.  Social cognition: how people think about themselves and the social world, more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information. Begin with assumption that people try to view the world as accurately as possible. –Lucky charm or natural cereal is better for health? Judging by cover, natural cereal, and truth lucky charm.  Expectations about social world. Our expectation gets in the way of accurate perception. Robert Rosenthal/leonore Jacobson made self- fulfilling prophecy: if you encourage/praise student, student believes and succeeds. Other motives; ensuring our survival and coping with mortality. 2 major source of construal  1 Self esteem approach: positive view of ourselves  2 Social cognition approach: view the world accurately  Ensuring our survival: evolutionary psychology- attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that evolved around time according to principles of natural selections. Human behavior driven by biology alone, and not environment. But the evolutionary theories now do involve environment.  Terror management theory: realization that we are going to die produces fear and people do great length to reduce this feeling. Social psychology and social problems  Does fear-inducing approach help? AIDS for protected sex. Does not help because people do not want to think of dying while sex. 2) Methodology: How social psychologists do research. 8/20/2013 3:34:00 AM Social psychology: empirical science  A fundamental principle of social psychology is that many social problems, such as causes of reactions to violence, can be studied scientifically.  Hindsight bias: people exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occurred. 20/20: by oese and Olson. If I told you that a doctor saved a patient and ask: what is the outcome, you would say doctor saved patient.  3 methods: observational, correlational, and experimental. Formulating hypotheses and theories  Theory: organized set of principles that can be used to explain observed phenomena  Hypothesis: testable statement or idea bout the relationship between two or more variables.  Observational/archival: description: what is the nature of phenomenon?  Correlation; description: what is the relationship between X and Y?  Experimental: causality: is X cause of Y?  Kitty Genovese’s case: diffusion of responsibility: assume someone else would have acted/ called police. The observational method  Observational method: technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements of their behavior.  Observer actively participates in scene.  Operational definition: precise specification of how variables are measured/manipulated. Pepler and Craig define bullying as power imbalance because of height/age/weight  Ethnography: method by which researcher attempt to understand a group/culture by observing it from the inside without imposing notions. Goal is to understand richness of group by observing action. Ethnography used by cultural anthropology-study of human cultures/society. Social psychology broadens focus by studying social behavior of ethnography.  Interjudge reliability: level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data; by showing that two or more judges independently come up with the same observations, researchers ensure that observations are not the subjective impressions of one individual. Used to observe children’s behavior or playground of cult behavior.  Archival analysis: form of observational method, whereby the researcher examines the accumulated documents/ archives of culture/diary/novel/magazine/newspaper. Model bodies. The correlational method  Correlational method: the technique whereby researchers systematically measures two or more variables and assess the relation between them (how much one can predict form the other) E.g. aggression vs. TV.  Correlation coefficient: statistical technique that assesses how well you can predict one variable based on another (how well you can predict weight form height). -1 to +1. 0 means no correlation.  Survey: research in which representative sample of people are asked questions about their attitudes or behavior. E.g. used to judge difficult to observe relationship- sex protection. Ability to sample representative segments. Random selection is good. Straightforward question is bad.  Correlational techniques are ideal for answering questions about whether two variables are related and strength o relation. E.g. how much time to donate/ amount of time spent is good? Bad  Limits of correlational method: correlation does not equal causation. The experimental method: answering causal questions  Experimental method: method in which researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensure that these conditions are identical except for independent variable (the one thought to have causal effect on people’s response)  Direct intervention. Independent and dependent variables  Independent variable: variable researcher changes/ varies to see effect on other variable  Dependent variable; variable researcher measure to see influence by independent variable. Hypothesize dependent depend on independent. Latane and Darley believed that people helped by number of bystanders present. Internal validity in experiments  Internal validity: change only independent variable.  Random assignment to condition: process where all participants have equal change of taking part of condition experiment.  P value: probability level: number, calculated with statistical techniques that tells researcher how likely it is that results of experiment occurred by chance and not because of independent variable. P <0.05 = results attribute to chance factors and not independent variable. P value tells us how confident we can be to the difference –like coin toss.  Internal validity: ensuring that nothing other than the independent variable can affect dependent variable. Control extraneous variable/ and assign randomly. Get control group  Only experimental method can answer casual questions. External validity in experiments  External validity: extent to which results of study can be generalized to other situations and to other people.  2 generalization are at issue: o Extent to which we can generalize from the situation constructed by an experimenter to real life situations (generalizing situation) o Extent to which we can generalize from people who participated in experiment to people in general (generalizing people) Generalizability across situations: mundane realism: extent to which experiment is similar to real-life situation. Psychological realism: extent to which psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological process that occur to everyday life. Psychological is high in experiment even if mundane realism is low. If the experiment decision is similar to real life decision. Cover story: purpose is different from true purpose to maintain psychological realism. Generalizability across people: psychological process differs in culture. Replication: repeating a study with different subject population/ setting /method. Meta analysis: statistical technique that averages result of 2 or more studies to see if the effects of independent variable are reliable. When results varies. Cross-cultural research: research conducted with members of different cultures to see whether psychological processes of interest are present across cultures/whether they are specific to culture. The basic dilemma of social psychologist.  Having enough control over the situation to ensure that no extraneous variables influence results. Random assignment. Results can be generalized to everyday life.  Field experiment: experiment conducted to natural settings rather than in lab. Real life setting. Lateen/Darley beer theft study: customer reports theft less with others in store than alone.  Basic dilemma of social psychology: tradeoff between internal/external validity. TV violence and aggression. External validity: maximized by playing floor hockey in school after TV. Aggression may be high in internal but lack external. Internal validity: controlling TV show. Most prefer internal control. Basic verses applied research  Basic research. Studies that are designed to find the best answer as to why people behave the way they do and conduct pure reasons for intellectual curiosity. Aren’t trying to solve a specific social/psychological problem.  Applied research: studies designed specifically to solve social problem; build theory of behavior is usually secondary to solve specific problem. Solving problem like racism, violence. Ethical issues in social psychology.  Informed consent: procedure whereby researchers explain the nature of experiment to participants before it begins to obtain consent.  Deception: procedure where participants are misled about true purpose of study.  Debriefing: process of explaining purpose of study. 3) Social Cognition 8/20/2013 3:34:00 AM 2 different kinds of social cognition.  Automatic: we classify object as chair. Involuntary  Controlled thinking: important decisions over hours like: major/dating On automatic pilot; Low-effort thinking  Automatic thinking: thinking that is nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, effortless People as everyday theorists: automatic thinking with schemas  Relate situation with prior experience.  Schemas: mental structures that organize our knowledge about social world through themes/subjects that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember. Librarian /specific events –eat meal in restaurant.  Schemas example: garden and Londe describe characteristics of male/female. Male were impatient. Fill in the blank schemas to describe a person. Label people. Stereotypes about race and weapons, stereotypes: schemas applied to members of social group such as gender or race. Race of face influence people’s perception of whether they saw gun/tool. The function of schemas: why do we have them? Schemas used to help organize and fill in gap of knowledge. Think of Kevin chapel: smart guy who could only recognize face after car crash. He had Korsakov syndrome: difficulty-forming schemas. It is important to help continuity and relate new experiences with past. Schemas as memory guides. Schemas tend to resist change. Which schemas are applied? Accessibility and priming? Accessibility: extent to which schemas and concepts are at forefront of people’s minds and are likely to be used when making judgments about social world.  Schemas are accessible for 3 reasons. 1. Schemas are chronically accessible due to past experience. Constantly active/ready to use. Ex) if your family is alcoholic, you tend to go to that idea. 2. Schemas are related to current goal. You need it for exams. 3. Schemas can be temporary because of recent experience. Schema/trait happens right before you think of it. Priming: the process by which recent experience increase accessibility of schema/trait/concept. Read a book about alcohol, saw crazy guy, must be alcohol.  So: 1) past experience 2) goal/exam 3) recent experience.  Thoughts have to be accessible and applicable before they will be primed. Priming is a good example of automatic thinking because it occurs quickly unintentionally. The persistence of schemas after they are discredited. Perseverance effect: finding that people’s beliefs about themselves and social world persist even after evidence supporting these beliefs is discredited. People believe they are right even when they were told they were wrong. Making our schemas come true: the self-fulfilling prophecy: the case whereby people have an expectation about what another person is like which influences how they act toward that person which cause person to behave consistently with their original expectation.  1) You have an expectancy/social theory about another person. 2 You behave the expectancy/social theory to another person. 3 Target respond to your expectancy/social theory. 4 You see person’s behavior as proof that your expectancy was right and don’t realize you caused this response. I don’t like you, so I treat you bad. Friend: why is he mean? I’ll treat him mean. You: so he was mean! I was right. (don’t realize that you caused this scenario). Ex2) teachers believed in bloomer students are better.  Self-fulfilling prophecy is autonomic thinking. Reign of error: cite actual course of event as proof that they were right from the beginning. Ex) last year boys are better than girls. So this yea, boys are better than boys Cultural determinants of schemas: other cultures remember our culture. Culture form mental structure. Autonomic schemas: 1 way is to reduce information and separate nd information. 2 way is to use rules/shortcut on our thinking. They can be erroneous though. Mental strategies and shortcuts; heuristics  Judgmental heuristics: mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently: to discover: do not guarantee to make accurate thinking. Most of the time heuristic is functional and good. How easily does it come to mind? The availability heuristic. Availability heuristic: mental shortcut whereby people base a judgment on ease with which they can bring something to mind. Tversky and Kahneman studied naming famous/non famous people. More famous people named. Nicole CT scan, brain wave test, blood test with insomnia, slurred words. Acute intermittent porphyria: blood problem. Doctor used: availability heuristic because she just read a book about the blood problem. Availability and assertiveness: people who were asked to think of 6 times they behaved assertively and 12 times they behaved assertively. 6 times were assertive people. If couldn’t think 12 times then unassertive people. Result show that people base judgment on availability/how easily they can bring information to mind.  Availability heuristic: the ease in which they bring example to mind –making judgment on themselves and other people. How similar is A to B? Representative heuristic: mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a case. (She speaks French, must be from Quebec) Base rate information: information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population. (How many people are actually from Quebec in Toronto?) The pervasiveness of automatic thinking  Cocktail party phenomenon: in party where you hear your name.  The power of unconscious thinking: immediate condition: immediately decision. Conscious condition: 3 minute decision. Unconscious condition: distracted and 3 minute decision. Best decision; unconscious. Controlled social condition: high effort thinking.  Racial profiling: action toward people based on race/nationality rather than behavior. 911  Controlled thinking; thinking that is conscious, intention, voluntary, effortful. They can turn on /off this thinking. We can think about what we ate/or not think. Thinking about what might have been: counterfactual reasoning: mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been. If only I studied, I would have done well. Counterfactual reasoning lead to paradoxical effect. Bronze happier than silver place. Self- improvement: writing down things is improved. Self-enhancement: what they could do to make themselves feel better to prevent counterfactual thinking. Thought suppression and ironic processing.  Thought suppression: attempt to avoid thinking about something a person would prefer to forget. 2 process; automatic and controlled. Automatic: monitoring process: search evidence that unwanted thought is about to intrude on conscious. Once unwanted thought detected, opening process: controlled part, where one distracts himself.  Cognitive load: thoughts will spill out unchecked. Emotional/physical coast to thought suppression. More suppress more problems. A portrayal of social thinking.  2 mode of social cognition: automatic/controlled. Mental contamination: kinds of biases that are pervasive everyday. Blind to truth. Improving human thinking. Overconfidence barrier: barrier that results when people have too much confidence in accuracy of their judgments. Teach basic method/statistic. 4) Social perception: How we come to understand other People 8/20/2013 3:34:00 AM Nonverbal Behaviour Social perception: the study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people. Nonverbal behavior-facial/body/tone of voice Nonverbal behavior  Nonverbal communication: the way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally without words. Facial expression, tone of voice, gesture, body position and movement, the use of touch, eye gaze. Mirror neurons respond to action and we see someone else perform the same action. When we see someone cry, we cry ourselves. Facial expressions of emotion.  Darwin’s research on facial expression. Encode: express or emit nonverbal behavior such as smiling or patting someone on the back. Decode: interpret the meaning of nonverbal behavior such as patting on back is condolence, not kindness. Encode: emit. Decode: decode/understand.  Paul Ekman/walter friesen 6 emotion: anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, and sadness. Contempt added by Paul Ekman. Embarrassment added by dacher keltner. Heroism/humor/love/peace. ride. Are facial expressions of emotion universal? Not all theorists agree with 6 expressions. Conduct that all facial expression are same in different cultures. Why is decoding sometimes inaccurate: affect blends: facial expression in which one part of face is registering one emotion while another part is different. Culture and nonverbal communication. Display rule: culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display. Ex. Men don’t cry. Eye contact, personal space  Emblem; nonverbal gestures that have well understood definitions within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations- okay sign. Hang gestures. Gender and nonverbal communication.  Social role theory: the theory that sex differences in social behavior derive from society’s division of labor between the sexes; this division leads to different gender roles expectations and sex typed skills. Both of which are responsible for differences in men/women social behavior. Men work outside/women in kitchen. Problem; gender role arise and they have different sets of attitude. Women less powerful.  You can learn attitude, emotion, and personality trait from nonverbal behavior. Implicit personality theories: filling in the blanks.  Implicit personality theory: schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together. Egg. Many people believe if someone is kind, he is generous. Culture and implicit personality theories.  Implicit personality theories tied to culture. Chinese artist do not have implicit Casual attribution: answering the why question.  Attribution theory: a description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other behavior. The nature of attribution process. Fritz heider: father of attribution theory. Internal attribution: person is behaving because of something about his attitude/character/personality. Ex. Father yells because bad parenting. External attribution: person behaves because of situation, assumption that most people would respond the same way; situation/not personality. E.g. beggar is poor because his own fault-internal. Beggar is poor because he lost his job-external. Another contribution is people prefer internal than external attribution because we look at the people more/overlook situation. The covariation model: internal VS external attribution.  Covariation model: theory stating that in order to form an attribution about what caused a person’s behavior we note pattern between presence of possible causal factors and whether the behaviors occurs. E.g. does your friend normally lend cars/does she lends to others? 3 types o Consensus information: information about extent to which other people behave the same way as the actor does in same stimulus. Do other people at work also yell at her? o Distinctive information: information about one actor behaves the same way to different stimuli. Does the boss yell at other employee? o Consistency information: information which behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time/circumstances. Does boss yell regularly whether store is busy/empty? o Internal attribution-consensus and distinctive act are low. Consistency high. Boss bitch personality o External attribution- consensus/distinctiveness’s/consistency are high. o External/situational attribution-consistency low. Unusual with circumstance. Boss saw something upsetting. o Covariation model is logic. Attributions can be biased when people use mental shortcuts. People do what they do because of people, not situation. The correspondence bias: people as personality psychologist.  Correspondence bias: tendency to infer that people’s behavior corresponds to or matches their disposition (personality).  Fundamental attribution error: overestimate behavior is attributable to internal/dispositional factors/ underestimate situational factors. Correspondence bias often called fundamental attribution error. But social situation have impact on behavior. Fundamental attribution underestimate The role of perceptual salience in fundamental attribution error. Perceptual salience: information that is focus on people’s attention; people tend to overestimate causal role of perceptually silent information. People, not situation have perceptual salience. People are what we see/hear. It shows why fundamental attribution error is widespread. When seat A or B is better. We think A is better because its closer, when it’s simply just the situation is still the same. The two step process of making attributions: analyzing another peron’s behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for behavior, after which one may adjust the original internal attribution. 1) Internal attribution  2) look situation. Consequences of fundamental attribution error: tendency to blame others. More people blame mothers with birth problem who had access to health care than mother without access. Culture and fundamental attribution error. Westerns blame people (bad worker). Chinese blame situation (poor management/training). The actor/observer difference: tendency to see other people’s behavior as dispositional caused while focusing more on role of situational factors when explaining own behavior. We see a woman yelling: we think woman mean. Woman thinks sleep deprives. People think more consistency. Perceptual salience revisited: why is actor observer attribution so different? It’s because of perceptual salience where we look at others. The role of information availability in actor/observer difference. Actors have more information about themselves. Actor have more consistency/distinctiveness Self-serving attributions: explanation for one’s success that credit internal/dispositional factor and failure that blame external/situational factors. Internal attribution: success. External attribution: failure. Defensive attribution: explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality.  Unrealistic optimism: defensive attribution where person think of good things always happen to them, and bad things happen less.  Belief in a just world; defensive attribution where people assume bad things happen to bad people, good things happen to good people. How accurate are our attributions and impressions. First impressions are not accurate because of fundamental attribution error: people attribute to people rather than situation. Girl may be friendly in party, so I think she’s friendly. But situation is in a party, so she is friendly maybe because of party. 5) Self-Knowledge and the Need to Maintain self-esteem 8/20/2013 3:34:00 AM The nature of self.  Self-concept: the contents of the self that is, our knowledge about who we are.  Self-awareness: act of thinking about ourselves.  Babies have self-concept at age of 2. Using a mirror. Functions of self. Why do we have self-concept? Organizational function of the self.  Self-schemas: mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about themselves and that influence what they notice think about, and remember about themselves. Self-reference effect: tendency for people to remember information better if they relate it to themselves. Self-regulation: executive function. Self-regulatory resource model: self- controls limited resource gets tired. Cultural differences in defining the self.  Independent view of self: defining oneself in terms of own thoughts/feelings and not others. Interdependent view of the self; defining ones relationship with others. Thoughts/feelings determine by others. Asian community is interdependent. Gender differences in defining the self. Collective interdependence: defining based on sense of relational such as sport teams. Knowing ourselves through introspection  Introspection: process people look inward and examine own thoughts/feelings/motivations. Focusing on the self: self-awareness theory.  Self-awareness theory: idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare behavior with standards/values. Self awareness can be good (matches what you think/who you are) or bad (no match, not perfect) Judging why we feel the way we do: telling more than we can know.  Causal theories: theories about the causes of one’s own feelings and behaviors: typically, we learn theories from culture. I feel bad because I slept 4 hours. Because it’s Monday. Knowing ourselves by observing our own behavior.  Self-perception theory: theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain we infer states by observing behavior/situation. I like music because I chose pop. I don’t like music because my roommate chose pop. Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation.  Intrinsic motivation: desire to engage in activity because we enjoy it, not because of reward/ pressure  Extrinsic motivation: we engage in activity because of reward/pressure, not because I like it. The over justification effect: case where people view their behaviors as caused by extrinsic reason making them underestimate extent to which behavior was caused by intrinsic. At first I play piano because I like it, not I play because parents pay me reward. This makes them think they have no intrinsic interest. Preserving intrinsic interest  Task contingent reward: reward that is given for performing a task regardless how well task is done.  Performance contingent reward: reward given for how well task performed. Knowing ourselves through social interaction Seeing ourselves through the eyes of others: looking glass self; the idea that we see ourselves through others and their views is our self-concept Knowing ourselves by comparing ourselves to others.  Leon festingers social comparison theory: idea that we learn about our own abilities/attitudes by comparing with others. I tell you that you are 70/100 sensitive compared to others. I tell you that you are 30/100 sensitive. The need to feel good about ourselves Social comparison revisited  Downward social comparison: process where we compare ourselves with people who are worse. May not be good: read about a first th year doing well but in 4 year fails.  Upward social comparison: process we compare with people better. Social comparison and culture. Western does better with positive role model. Asian do better with negative role model Self-discrepancy theory: theory that we become distressed our sense of who we truly are-actual self is discrepant from personal standards or desired self- concepts. Promotional oriented: motivated to achieve goals/attain positive outcome. Prevention oriented-channel energy to avoid negative outcome/experience Self-discrepancies and culture. Self-evaluation: biased or accurate? Self-enhancement: wanting to feel good about ourselves, regardless of facts  Self-enhancement; unrealistically positive view of oneself.  Self-enhancement and culture: self-effacement: established at young age: hold negative view of oneself.  Self-verification: wanting to know truth about ourselves. Self- verification theory: theory suggesting that people have a need to seek confirmation of their self-concept, whether the self-concept is positive or negative. In some circumstances, this tendency can conflict with desire to uphold a favorable view of oneself. Sometimes we prefer positivity than accuracy such as feedback from teacher/attractive partner. –Self-enhancement needs. Vs. truth accuracy-friends/family. 6) Attitudes and Attitude Change: Influencing thoughts, feelings, and Behavior 8/20/2013 3:34:00 AM The nature and origin of attitudes  Attitude: evaluation of a person/object/idea  3 parts of attitude o Affective component: emotional reactions towards attitude. I hate foreign cars. o Cognitive component: thoughts/beliefs about attitude object. I admire the engine to be fuel-efficient. o Behavioral component: actions / observable behavior toward the attitude object. Do I buy the car? Where do attitudes come from? Not all attributes are created equally. Affectively based attitudes: an attitude based on people’s emotions and feelings about attitude object.  Don’t discuss politic/sex/religion in dinner.  They do not result from a rational examination of the issue. They are not governed by logic. They are often linked to people’s values, so trying to change them challenges those values Cognitively based attitudes: attitude based on person’s beliefs bout properties of an attitude object. Purpose is to classify the plus/minus of an object (advantage/disadvantage). I like the vacuum cleaner because of the dirt/cleanliness. Not because it’s sexy1 Behaviorally based attitude: attitude based on observation of how one behaves toward an attitude object. Self-perception theory: people don’t know how they feel until they see how they behave. Ex0 how much do you like exercising? Well a little because I sometimes go to the gym. Comparing affective/cognitive/behavioral based attitudes. Negative towards a group: cognitively based. Symbolic belief: beliefs that group threatens their value system (cognitive). Positive attitude toward social groups are affective because it’s our feelings towards the group. Explicit VS implicit attitude.  Explicit attitude: attitude that we consciously endorse and report.  Implicit attitude: attitude that is involuntarily, uncontrollable, unconscious. You can have implicit and explicit at the same time When will attitudes predict behavior  People’s attitudes are poor predictors of behavior. The theory of planned behavior: theory that the best predictors of a person’s planned behavior are the person’s attitude toward specific behavior/subjective norm/ perceives behavioral control.  Yale attitude change approach: study of the conditions in which people are likely to change attitude in response to persuasive messages; researcher focus on who said what to whom. Source of communication/nature of communication/ nature of audience.  Central and peripheral routes to persuasion. Heuristic systematic persuasion model: theory that there are 2 ways in which persuasive communication can cause attitude change: people process the merit of argument-systematic processing or are swayed by factors that are peripheral to the message itself such as: experts are always right heuristic processing. Elaboration likelihood model: t theory that there are 2 way in persuasive communication; control route occurs when people are motivated and have ability to pay attention to argument/ peripheral route when people do not pay attention to argument but are sway by surface characteristic-who gave the speech. o Both theories state that people are motivated to pay attention to facts /logic. Systematic processing: carefully thinking /processing content. Petty and cacioppo call central route to persuasion for logic thinking. Heuristic processing: peripheral route to persuasion: person is attractive/expert. Central route when topic is interesting/attention/clear. Peripheral route when argument is complicated/boring/tired/jargon language. o Peripheral cues: attitude toward specific behavior/subjective norms/perceived behavioral control o Specific attitude: only specific attitudes toward behavior can predict behavior. So specific questions can lead to predict behavior. (Ask woman would you use birth control now? In 2 years?) o Subjective norm: their beliefs about how the people they care about will view the behavior. E.g. A doesn’t like concert. But B likes concert. So based on subjective norm-her belief of her friendship, we might make different prediction about A going to concert because of B o Perceived behavioral control; ease people believe they can perform the behavior. If I think it’s easy, I can do it. If I think it’s hard to perform, I will not have strong intention. Intention-attitudes toward specific behavior/subjective norm/perceived behavioral control. Theory of planned behavior: implication for safer sex.  Why do some people have positive attitude toward sex but not use condom.  Subjective norms. People’s belief of how others view their behavior. Friends use condom, we use condom. Partner likes condom, we like condom.  Perceived behavioral control. Embarrassing talking/buying condom. More difficult to perform, less likely to use it  Behavioral intention. Bad mood/low self-esteem=no condom. Alcohol=no condom. Attitude change. Persuasive communication and attitude change  Persuasive communication: communication-speech/TV advertisement- supporting particular side of an issue. Factors: who says what to whom/looking at the source of communication-how attractive/expert speaker is / communication itself-quality of argument, speaker presents both side / nature of audience-hostile audience. Fear and attitude change  Fear arousing communication: persuasive message that attempts to change people’s attitude by arousing fear. Effective and produce fear. If fear created and people believe/motivated to listen to message on how to reduce the fear, they will change attitude through central route. (Shown a film then a pamphlet=create fear and information for change. If only film or only pamphlet=won’t work). Humor is more effective than fear because deny fear Advertising and attitude change. Tailoring advertisements to people’s attitude.  Attitude object==cognitively based attitude. Change with rational argument. How much usage it has.  Emotion/value-affectively based attitude. Change emotion. Social identity products: perfume/greeting cards change their values/concern. Cultural differences in advertising. Subliminal advertising; a form of mind control?  Sublimal message: words/pictures that are not consciously perceived but that supposedly influence people’s judgments/attitudes/behavior. Coca cola drink/eat popcorn Debunking the claims about subliminal advertisement; no effect. Participants thought subliminal worked, even though they did not. Evidence for subliminal influence in lab: subliminal message ineffecting for advertisement. Even in labs, there is no evidence that it works. Ads are more powerful when we consciously perceive them. Regular advertising is more powerful than subliminal. We fear subliminal more than regular ads. Resisting persuasive messages. Attitude inoculation: process of making people immune to attempts to change in attitude by initially exposing them to small does of argument against position. Smaller dose helps resist the larger dose change/less persuaded. While the ones without the small dose was susceptible to change/more persuaded Being alert to product placement.  Product placement: strategy place products in move/TV to persuade us to buy it. BMW in mtv. It’s successful because we don’t realize the influence. Changing our attitudes because of our behavior: the theory of cognitive dissonance.  So we know people try to change us. Sometimes, we change us.  Cognitive dissonance: feeling of discomfort caused by realization that one’s behavior is inconsistent with one’s attitudes or that one holds two conflicting attitudes. Dissonance occurs when we do something to make us feel stupid/ produce discomfort. E.g. we don’t’ want class to start 6; 30 but when we write a paper on it we may change our idea. So to change this dissonance/alleviate dissonance: you change behavior-stop smoking/change cognition/add cognition-smoke stats are liars. Decisions, decisions, decisions  Post decision dissonance: dissonance that is inevitably aroused after a decision made; dissonance reduced by enhancing attractiveness of chosen decision and devaluing rejected decision. (Shit, did I make the wrong idea? Nahh, the other one was bad anyway). Attractive decision has more dissonance than unattractive decision. (You make more regrets if between 2 cake and 2 veggies). The permanence of decision. The more permanent the more dissonance-e.g. marriage. In a horse race, people more dissonant before paying bet than after paying bet. The decision to behave immorally. Cheat or not to cheat. Those who cheat became lenient towards cheating. Those who didn’t cheat became harsher to cheaters. The justification of effort  Justification of effort: tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain. The club you created suckuse justification of effortit’s not that bad…. People are nice… Elliot aroson and Judson mill experiment between effort and dissonance reduction. When someone works hard for something they think it’s good. The psychology of insufficient justification  External justification: person’s reason/explanation for dissonant behavior that resides outside the individual-in order to receive reward/avoid punishment. You lie to your friend that she looks pretty because you don’t’ want to cause pain. Counter attitudinal advocacy. Internal justification: reduction of dissonance by changing something about onself0one’s attitude/behavior. When external fails, you look internal. If she really looks ugly, maybe you can say she’s nice. Counter attitudinal advocacy: person states an opinion/attitude that runs counter to his private belief/attitude. Saying becomes believing. With little external justification, we believe in the lie we told. Experiment: $20 given to students said that dull experiment was really boring. $1 given to students said that dull experiment was really interesting. This shows that a little external justification (small reward) could convince them of their own lie. Insufficient punishment. Bullies should be given severe punishment. Not according to dissonance theory. Dissonance theory says bullies should be given mild p
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