Social Psychology1.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Social Psychology PART 1: INTRODUCTION pages 2-52 1. What is Social Psychology? what is social psychology? Defining social psychology it is the scientific study of how individuals thing, feel, and behave in a social context a. scientific study: what makes social psychology stand out is that it is a science and applies the scientific method of systematic observation, description and measurement to study the human condition b. how individuals think, feel and behave: social psychology is different from the other socials sciences like economics and political sciences because it strives to establish general principles of attitude formation and change that apply in a variety of situations rather than exclusively to particular domains  social psychology focuses on the individual whereas sociology for instance looks at group factors e.g. classifying people by nationality/race c. a social context: focuses on the social nature of individuals, in order to establish general principles of human behavior social psychologists examine nonsocial factors that affect peoples thoughts, emptions, motives and actions  e.g. whether heat causes an increase in aggression or whether Steve Nash causes an increase in sales of Nike shoes b/c the thoughts, feelings and behaviors either a) concern other ppl or b) are influenced by other people The power of the social context: an example of a social psychology experiment - Erin Strahan: proposed that when woman view images of body norms it reminds them that they are being judges on their appearance and than they are unable to live up this expectation - Asked to rate themselves based on a variety of measurements such as self worth, self-esteem and how concerned they were with the opinions of other people  making changes to the social context in a + way by promoting + rather than – expectations about an individual/group can have a powerfully positive effect Social psychology and related fields: distinctions and interactions a. social psychology and sociology differences: - individual level vs group level - e.g. sociologists might track the political attitudes of the middle class in Canada whereas social psychologists might examine some of the specific factors that make individuals prefer one political candidate to another - social psychologists will manipulate some variable and determine the effects of this manipulation using precise quantifiable measures - both share the same training, publish in the same journals b. social psychology and clinical psychology - clinical psychologists understand/treat ppl with psychological disorders/difficulties whereas social psychologists focus on typical ways in which individuals think, feel, behave and influence each other c. social psychology and personality psychology - both concerned with individuals and their thoughts, feelings and behaviors - personality psychology seeks to understand differences between individuals that remain stable across a variety of situations (cross-situational consistency) whereas social psychology seeks to understand how social factors affect most individuals regardless of their different personalities d. social psychology and cognitive psychology - cp study mental processes such as thinking, learning, remembering and reasoning, sp are interested in how ppl think, learn, remember and reason with respect to social information and in how these processes are relevant to social behavior Social psychology and common sense - sp psychology uses scientific method to put its theories to the test from past to present: a brief history of social psychology The birth and infancy of social psychology 1880’s-1920’s - American psychologist Norman Triplett can be credited for marking the birth of modern day social psychology - He observed that bicyclists race faster when racing in the presence of others than when racing against a clock - He designed an experiment to study this phenomenon in a controlled and precise way - French agricultural engineer Max Ringelmann studied the effects of the presence of others on the performance of individuals - Noted that individuals often performed worse on simple tasks such as pulling rope when they performed the tasks with others - English psychologist William McDougall, and 2 Americans Edward ross and Floyd Allport wrote the first 3 textbooks in social psychology and where the first to establish social psychology as a distinct field of study - Allports book focused on the interaction of individuals and their social context and its emphasis on the use of experimentation and the scientific method A call to action 1930s-1950s - Adolf Hitler has had the strongest influence on the field of social psychology - he provoked a slue of social psychological questions about what causes violence, prejudice, genocide , conformity and obedience as well as other social problems and behaviors - after world war 2 marked an explosion of interest in social psychology - Gordon Allport formed the society for the psychological study of social issues, this society made practical contributions to society - Muzafer Sherif published experimental research on social influence a. he had witnessed greek soldiers killing his friends b. he drew from this experience and conducted research on the powerful influences groups exert on their individual members c. crucial for the development of social psych b/c it demonstrated that it is possible to study complex social processes such as conformity and social influence in a quick/scientific manner - Kurt Lewin fled the Nazi onslaught in Germany and established many fundamental principles a. behavior is a function of the interaction between the person and the environment - now known as the interactionist perspective - is an emphasis on how both an individuals personality and environment characteristics influence behavior - emphasized the interplay of internal and external factors and marked a sharp contract form other major psychological paradigms  psychoanalysis with its emphasis on internal motives and fantasies and behaviorism, with its focus on external rewards and punishments b. social psychologist theories should be applied to important, practical issues - “no research without action, no action without research” Confidence and crisis 1960s-mid-1970s - Stanley Milgram’s research was inspired by the destructive obedience shown by nazi officers/ordinary citizens in world war 2 - And also looked ahead to the civil disobedience that was beginning to challenge institutions all over the world  linking the post world war 2 era with the coming era of social revolution - her experiments demonstrated individuals vulnerability to the destructive commands of authority - this was a time of productivity as well as crisis and heated debate - disagreements surrounded the dominant research method at the time: laboratory experiments  unethical, experimenters expectations influenced participants behaviors, theories being tested in the lab were historically and culturally limited, feminist research was left out  social psych is split in 2 now An era of pluralism mid-1970s-1990s - both sides win - a pluralistic approach is recognized b/c no one research method is perfect, diff topics require diff kinds of investigation - pluralism extends in what aspects of human behavior are emphasized  hot perspective: emotion and motivation as determinants of our thoughts and actions  cold perspective: emphasizes the role of cognition, examine the way ppls thoughts affect how they feel, what they want and what they do  you can examine these perspectives separately/interactively - another example of pluralism is the development of multicultural/international perspectives - before the 1990’s sp was culture-bound, largely monocultural - after 1990 this changed reflecting the diff geographic and cultural backgrounds of its researchers and participants but also the recognition that many social psychological phenomena vary depending on culture social psychology in a new country Integration of emotion, motivation, and cognition - social cognition is the study of how people perceive, remember, and interpret information about themselves and others - sc out hot perspectives (emotion, motivation) to the back burner - a new development in the field is the interest in how individuals emotions and motivations influence their thoughts and actions - there is now a push to integrate these 2 perspectives  how ppls motivations influence nonconscious cognitive processes - an issue that arises from integrating hot and cold perspectives is wanting to be right and wanting to feel good about ourselves  we want to be right about judgments about ourselves and others, we don’t want to be right if it means we’ll learn something bad ourselves or close friends - experiments testing how stereotypes are activated provide evidence in distinguishing between automatic and controllable processes and understanding the relationship btw them Biological and evolutionary perspectives a. social neuroscience: study of the relationship between neural and social processes b. behavioral genetics: subfield of psychology that examines the role of genetic factors in behavior c. evolutionary psychology: a subfield of psychology that uses the principles of evolution to understand human social behavior Cultural perspectives - culture is a system of enduring meanings, beliefs, values, assumptions, institutions and practices shared by a large group of ppl and transmitted from on generation to the next - how individuals perceive and derive meaning form their world are influences profoundly by the beliefs, norms and practices of the ppl and institutions around them - in order to identify universal generality or cultural specificity, cross cultural research allows sp to compare and contrast ppl of different cultures - multicultural research is designed to examine racial and ethnic groups within cultures - cross cultural research has reveled the collectivist cultures found in Africa asia and latin America and the individualistic ones found in north America and Europe - recall the conflict arising from the integration of hot and cold variables in which ppl struggle between wanting to be right and wanting to feel good about themselves - cross cultural research has shown that how individuals try to juggle these 2 goals differs btw cultures  individualistic cultures are more likely to focus on info that makes them feel good rather than info that points to the need for improvement EXPERIMENT: Carl Falk asked Japanese and European-Canadian participants to choose desirable and undesirable traits that characterized them. Japanese chose a balance of desirable and undesirable traits whereas euro-Canadians chose more desirable traits - within a particular society ppl are treated diff depending on gender, race, physical appearance e.g. boys and girls develop and live in subcultures New technologies - PET positron emission tomography, ERP event-related potential, TMS transcranial magnetic stimulation and fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging are being used to study the interplay of the brain and discrete thoughts, feelings and behaviors - Virtual reality technology enables researches to test questions that would be impractical, impossible and unethical - The internet has allowed researchers around the world to share info as well as allow them to study participants from divers populations, and has inspired researchers to study whether sp phenomenon are similar or different online vs. offline 2. Doing Social Psychology Research why should you learn about research methods - common sense/intuitions about social psychological issues can be misleading and contradictory, it is important to understand the scientific evidence that sp theories and findings are based - studying research methods in psych improves your reasoning about real life events and info presented by media/other sources  e.g. commercial tells us that doctors prefer a specific/expansive kind of aspirin a. what if the doctors are comparing aspirin to non-aspirin products for a particular problem b. if so doctors may have preferred any kind of aspirin over non-aspirin products developing ideas: beginning the research process Asking question - every sp study begins with a question that can come from anywhere - inspiration can come from a variety of sources: from the distressing, perplexing, amusing or even from reading about research that has already been done e.g. Solomon Asch read about Muzafer Sheriffs demonstration of how individuals in a group conform to others in the group when making judgments about a very ambiguous stimulus. Asch wondered if individuals would conform to the options of others in a group even when the opinion was clearly wrong RESULT: ppl conformed to the groups’ clearly wrong opinion Searching the literature - once you have chosen a question you now should find out what research has already been done on the topic/ related topics - best way to find info is by using an electronic database of published research e.g. PsychArticles and PsychINFO - often your question changes: becoming more specific to particular sets of conditions that are likely to have diff effects and more readily testable Hypotheses and theories - hypothesis is a testable prediction about the conditions under which and event will occur - once data is collected to test the hypotheses a theory may be proposed which is an organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena - theories are evaluates in terms of 3 criteria: simplicity, comprehensiveness and their ability to generate new hypotheses (generativity) - sp rely on mini theories that address limited and specific aspects of the way ppl behave, make explicit predictions about behavior and allow meaningful empirical investigation  e.g. Daryl Bem’s self-perception theory: he proposed that when ppls internal states such as feeling or attitude are difficult to interpret they infer this feeling or attitude by observing their own behavior and the situation in which it takes  theory did not apply to all situations but rather it was specific to situations where ppl made inferences about their actions when their internal stat was ambiguous  benefit of this study is that it clarified evidence found in other studies and generated testable hypotheses Basic and applied research - basic researchers seeks to increase our understand of human behavior and is often designed to test a specific hypothesis based on a specific theory - applied research is designed to enlarge the understanding of naturally occurring events and to find solutions to practical problems - Kurt Lewin encouraged br to be concerned with social problems and applied researchers to recognize the importance of good theories refining ideas: defining and measuring social psychological variables Conceptual variables and operational definitions: from the abstract to the specific - the first draft of a hypothesis includes variables that are abstract and general (conceptual variables)  e.g. prejudice, conformity, attraction, love, violence, group pressure, social anxiety - in order to test these variables they must be transformed into variables that can be manipulated/measured  specific way that a conceptual variable is manipulated/measured is called (operational definition) of the variable  operationally define conformity in a particular study as the # of times a participant indicated agreement with the obvious wrong judgment of their group members - there is no best way to transform conceptual  operational - there is a way to see how valid various manipulation/measures are (construct validity)  which refers to the extent to which the measured used in a study measure the variables they were designed to measure and the manipulations in an experiment manipulate the variables they were designed to manipulate Measuring variables: using self-reports, observations and technology a. Self reports: going straight to the source - self reports are a common measurement technique use in sp - participants disclose their thoughts, feelings, desires and actions - self-reports can consist of individual questions or sets of questions that together measure a single conceptual variable - e.g. a popular self-report measure, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale consists of a set of questions that measures individuals overall self-esteem - self reports can be inaccurate/misleading as we often desire to look good to ourselves/others, as well as by the effects of the wording and context of questions  bogus pipeline: is a procedure in which participants are led to believe their responses will be verified by an infallible lie-detector, participants report more accurate fact of themselves and support socially unacceptable opinions more frequent  condoms prevent AIDS, 95% success rate: 88% participants thought condoms were effective, 5% failure rate: 42% participants thought condoms were effective - another flaw in self-reports is the fact that they ask participants to recall thoughts/behaviors from the past - to minimize this problem psychologists reduce the time between an actual experience and the persons report of it i. interval contingent : report their experiences at regular internals ii. signal contingent: report their experiences as soon as possible after being signaled iii. event contingent: report on a designated set of events as soon as the event has occurred e.g. Roshester Interaction Record used to report on social interactions that lasted 10 mins or longer during the study IN CONTRAST: narrative studies collect long responses on general topics - can be generated by participants or gathered from other sources: diary, speech, book, chat room - they are than analyzed in terms of a coding scheme made by researcher e.g. you may code a diary for evidence of changes in behavior toward other groups b. Observations - you can also observe ppl’s actions, sometimes an observation may be simple like noting which of 2 items a person selects or it could be complex in which you would require interrater reliability - which is the degree to which different observers agree on their observations - observational methods avoid faulty recollections and distorted interpretations of our own behavior c. Technology - equipment can be used to measure: i. physiological responses; heart rate, level of hormones, sexual arousal ii. reaction times; identify race of ppl in photos, presence of weapon in black/white mans hand iii. eye movements; where/how long ppl look at particular parts of a stimulus iv. activity in regions of the brain; ppl may not show racial/sexist biases on self-report but they may show increases activity in parts of their brain associated with feelings of threat/strong emotion when they see photos of thing about ppl from a particular racial group/gender testing ideas: research designs - sp use qualitative and quantitative research approaches to test their research hypotheses and theories - qualitative research: the collection of data through open-ended responses, observation, and interviews - quantitative research: more commonly used, the collection of numerical data through objective testing and statistical analysis - most popular research method is experimentation in which researchers test cause-and-effect relationships  e.g. does exposure to violent video games cause players to behave more aggressive Descriptive research: discovering trends and tendencies - goal is to describe ppl and their thoughts, feelings and behaviors - questions that can be asked include; what do men and women say are the things most likely to make them jealous of their partner - methods of doing descriptive research include: i. observational studies - researchers wanted to learn about bullying and if peers stepped, they studied this occurrence using microphones and hidden cameras - researchers observe individuals systematically in natural settings ii. archival studies - examining existing records of past events and behaviors such as newspaper articles, medical records, diaries, sports statistics, personal ads, crime statistics or hits on a web page - an advantage of this is since researchers are observing behavior secondhand they can make sure their presence did not influence behavior - a limitation is that available records are not always complete/detailed/collected in a nonsystematic manner - valuable for examining cultural and historical trends  e.g. study that compared the academic performance of Quebec college students with or without disabilities iii. surveys - involves asking people questions about their attitudes, beliefs and behaviors - surveys are useful for answering questions that involve variables that are impossible/unethical to observe directly or manipulate  e.g. ppls sexual behavior/ optimism about the future - 1 survey researchers choose the population to which they want the results of the survey to nd generalize and 2 they select a subset or sample of ppl from that pop to take the survey - a sample that represents the broader population is chosen using random sampling which is a method of selecting participants for a study so that everyone in a population has an = chance of being in the study Correlation research: looking for associations - most research hypotheses concern the relationship btw variables - e.g. how physically attractive ppl are contribute to how much they make - a way to test these hypotheses is with correlational research which is designed to measure the association btw variables that are not manipulates by the researcher - it can be conducted using observational, archival and survey methods like descriptive research - unlike descriptive research it measures the relationship btw diff variables - the extent to which variables related to each other/ correlate suggest how similar/distinct 2 diff measures are - e.g. how well we can predict uni success from high school grades a. correlation coefficient - if researchers examine the relationship btw variables that vary in quantity e.g. temp they can measure the strength and direction of the relationship btw the variables and calculate a statistical called a correlation coefficient - which is a statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association btw 2 variables - correlation coefficients can range from -1 to +1  number determines how strong the 2 variables are associated  + or – determines the direction of the relationship  + = as 1 variable increases so does the other  e.g. smoking and lung cancer are + correlated, this correlation is not perfect some ppl who smoke do not develop lung cancer and that’s why its les than +1  - = as 1 variable goes up the other goes down  e.g. number of classes missed and GPA  correlation close to 0 means no correlation at all - correlations obtained at a single point in time across a number of individuals are called concurrent - correlations obtained at different times from the same individuals are called prospective b. advantages and disadvantaged of correlational research ADVANTAGE: - can study the associations of naturally occurring variables that cannot be manipulated or induced (gender, race, ethnicity, age) - can examine phenomena that would be difficult/unethical to create for research purposes (love, hate, abuse) - offers researchers freedom in where variables are measured (lab, real world setting = the field) - correlations can help develop new hypotheses to guide future research as well as develop accurate predictions of future events DISADVANTAGES: - correlation is not causation - a correlation cannot demonstrate a cause and effect relationship - instead of a direct causal pathway from one variable, A to another variable B: A could cause B, B could cause A or C could cause both A and B Experiments: looking for cause and effect - does playing video games cause an increase in violent behavior? - in order to examine cause and effect relationships, we need to conduct an experiment - experiment share 2 common characteristics: “a form of research that can demonstrate causal relationships because the experimenter has control over the events that occur and participants are randomly assigned to conditions” 1. research has control, of experimental procedures. All participants are treated exactly the same except for the specific differences the experimenter wants to create. Ensuring that differences are after manipulation are not b/c of other events in the experiment 2. participants are randomly assigned to the different manipulations (conditions)  random assignment is a method of assigning participants to the various conditions of an experiment so that each participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being in any of the conditions  This occurs so that differences that appear btw conditions after an experimental manipulation can be attributed to impact od manipulation no pre-existing diff btw participants Correlation vs. Experiment Correlation Research Experimental Research What does it involve: - measuring variables and the - random assignment and degree of association btw control them - determining effects of manipulations of the independent variables on changes in the dependent variables Biggest advantage of using - allows researchers to study - allows researchers to this method: naturally occurring variables determine cause and effect: (difficult/unethical) does independent variable cause change in dependent variable  same goal: eliminate the influence of participant behavior a. random sampling vs random assignment  random sampling is not necessary for establishing causality RS vs RA RS RA What does it involve: - selecting participants to be - assigning participants who are in in the study so that the study to various conditions of everyone from a pop has an the experiment so that each of = chance of being a them has an = chance of being in participant any of the conditions Biggest advantage of - allows researchers to = the conditions of the experiment using this procedure: collect data from samples so its unlikely that the conditions that rep a broad pop differ in terms of preexisting diff - allows the generalization among participants of results to broad pop - determines that independent variable caused an effect on the dependent variables b. laboratory and field experiments - most experiments are conducted in a lab, for a better controlled environment where participants can we closely studied - key point: control over setting, measure participants behavior close, keep conditions identical for participants - field research is conducted in real-world setting and ppl act for natural however experimenter has less control and cannot ensure participants are exposed to the same thing - e.g. imagine I show u a bunch of pens mostly black the rest blue, and I ask u to choose one. Do u choose a color from the minority/majority  ppl from western culture choose the minority whereas in east Asian cultures ppl choose the majority - this experiment was explored by Claire Ashton-James considering the relationship btw mood/culture - participants from western cultures who were put in a good mood by listening to upbeat music chose the more common pen and the opposite was true for east Asian participants showing that positive moods make individuals act in ways that deviate from cultural norms c. independent and dependent variables - in an experiment researchers manipulate 1/more independent variables and look at the effect of these manipulations on 1/more dependent variables - e.g. independent variable: participants assigned to either +/- mood condition, dependent variable: what color pen was chosen b/c the point of the experiment was to see if it would depend on the manipulation of the independent variable d. subject variables - some experiments include variables that are not dependent/independent - e.g. gender/ethnicity of participants may vary and it could be interesting to examine - these variables cannot be manipulated/randomly assigned so they aren’t independent variables, and they can’t be influences by the independent variables = not dependent - which makes it a subject variable: a variable that characterize pre-existing differences among the participants in a study - subject variables are added with independent variables so researchers can see if the independent variable has the same/different effect on diff kinds of participants  e.g. in the above experiment the participants cultural background was a variable of interest: western/east Asian background = subject variable e. statistical significance - results found in an experiment are examined with statistical analysis to see how likely it is that the results could occur b/c chance - if results could have occurred by chance 5 ore fewer times in 100 possible outcomes the result is statically significant - however still a possibility that the finding occurred by chance (5/100) - this is why its important to replicate the experiment to see if the results are similar - if same results are found probability that results could have occurred by chance both times is less than 1/400 or 5% x 5% f. internal validity (iv): did the independent variable cause the effect - results have internal validity when the experiment is properly conducted  internal validity: the degree to which there can be reasonable certainty that the independent variables in an experiment caused the effects obtained on the dependent variables - control groups strengthen (iv) e.g. in the mood and culture study the control group would consist of participants who experience all of the experimental procedures except the experimental treatment so the control group would experience a neutral mood condition - it would act as a baseline to compare the choices of those in a good/bad mood - control groups out of the lab can cause practical/ethical problems  e.g. research on new medical treatment for AIDS ppl in the control group receive normal treatment but are excluded from the duration of the study which could be a life saving new intervention - internal validity can be weakened by the predictions of the experimenter: they may expect how the independent variable may effect the dependent and treat the participants in diff conditions differently - the experimenter expectancy effects is the effects produced when an experimenters expectations about the results of an experiment affect his or her behavior toward a participant and thereby influence the participants responses this can be prevented by keeping the experimenters uninformed about assignments to conditions - if this cant happened than minimize interaction btw experimenter and participant e.g. read instructions on computer rather than experimenter reading them g. external validity (ev): do the results generalize? - external validity is the degree to which there can be reasonable confidence that the results of a study would be obtained for other people and in other situations - participants in the experiment and setting of experiment affect external validity - ideal participants should be representative of all human beings over the world and alternative includes: i. participants come from random sampling of a pop (representative samples) strengthens external validity ii. usually participants are convenience samples from pop that is readily available, cheap, weakens external validity - (ev) is also effected by setting is the research is conducted in real life setting than the results may be generalizable to actual behavior depending on the views of mundane/experimental realism - mundane realism (mr) is the degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world  advocates of (mr) believe if research procedures are more realistic, research findings are likely to reveal what’s really going on - experimental realism is the degree to which experimental procedures are involving to participants and lead them to behave naturally  most emphasized by social psychologists as they believe if the experimental situation is real to the participants while participating their behavior in the lab will be as natural as behavior in real world h. deception in experiments - researchers who was a highly involving experience for participants rely on deception which is a method that provides false info to participants - confederates may also be used which is an accomplice of an experimenter who in dealing with the real participants in an experiment act as if he/she is also a participant  e.g. confederates acted like ordinary shoppers and asked ppl in a supermarket for 25 cents toward either milk, cookie doe, alcohol - they wanted to see if the sex of the participant would effect their decision to help the result was that the need associated with the item played greater role - deception strengthens experimental realism, allows the manufacturing of situations difficult to observe in natural settings, study harmful behavior and assess ppl spontaneous rxn Meta-analysis: combining results across studies - another way to test hypotheses is to use a set of statistical procedures to examine in a new way, relevant research that has already been conducted and reported - this is known as meta analysis: a set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individuals studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects - e.g. studied on alcohol/ aggression often contradict each other, sometimes alcohol increase aggression and sometimes it doesn’t. by gathering data from all studies relevant to this hypothesis and conduction meta analysis researcher can determine what effect alcohol has, how strong the effect is and under what condition that effect is most likely to occur Culture and research methods - advantage to this study is that it provides better tests of the external validity of research that has been conducted in any one setting - examining the results of an experiment generalized to a different culture allows sp to answer questions about the universality or culture specificity of their research - a challenge of this kind of research is that diff cultures make diff assumptions and tend to give diff information when they respond to questions on a survey - e.g. north Americans are more use to answering personal question, but ppl in some culture feel uncomfortable talking about themselves - Narian Ramiez-Esparza showed a difference in data from self-report and observational measures - There was no significant difference in how the Mexican and American participants assessed how sociable they were but when they recorded for 2 days the Mexican participants judged to be more sociable ethics and values in social psychology - researchers in all fields have a moral and legal responsibility to abide by ethical principles - the use of deception has caused particular concern - e.g. Stanley Milgram designed a series of experiments to address the questions: would ppl obey orders to harm an innocent person - the participant was commanded to administer painful electric shocks to another participant (who was actually an actor) - participants had a great deal of anxiety/stress deciding whether or not to disobey the experimenter or continue - results of the study made ppl realize how prevalent/powerful obedience is - what was debated was whether the significance of the research topic justified exposing participants to possibly harmful psychological consequences Research ethics boards - the interagency advisory panel on research ethics created a Tri-council policy statement: ethical conduct for research involving humans which includes the requirement that all research involving humans by reviewed/approved by an institutional research ethics board - established by the federal government, REBs are responsible for reviewing psychologists to secure informed consent from research participants Informed consent - the Canadian code of ethics for psychologists ensures that researchers are obligated to guard the rights and welfare of all participants - one of the obligations is to obtain informed consent which is an individuals deliberate, voluntary decision to participate in research based on the researchers description of what will be required during such participation Debriefing: telling all - researchers can only use deception when nondeceptive alternatives are not feasible - and if deception is used, once the data is collected the researchers inform the participants on how they were deceived - the process of disclosure is called debriefing which is made to participants after research procedures are completed, in which the researcher explains the purpose of the research, attempts to resolve any – feelings, and emphasizes the scientific contribution made by the participants involvement Values and science: points of view - moral values set standard for and impose limits on the conduct of research - there are various view on the relation btw values and science - few believe that there can be a completely value free science whereas others argue that values should be recognized and encouraged as an important factor in science PART 2: Social Perception pages 54-95 3. The Social Self a. the ability to self reflect is necessary for ppl to feel as if they understand their own motives and emotions and the causes of their behavior b. the self is heavily influenced by social factors  chapter examines the ABCs of the self: A= affect, B= behavior, C= cognition The self- concept - self concept is the sum total of an individuals beliefs about his or her own personal attributes - hazel markus says the self concept is made of cognitive molecules called self schemas which are a belief people hold about themselves that guides the processing of self-relevant information  self schemas at to self concept like books are to a library - ppl who think that hey are very fat/skinny or who think body image is a huge part of their self concept are schematic - this is because going to the grocery store, buying new clothes or going for dinner will trigger thoughts about the self - ppl who do not think of their own weight as an important part of their lives are aschematic Elements of the self-concept Is the self specially represented in the brain? - sense of identity is biologically rooted - synaptic connections in the brain provide biological basis for memory allowing the sense of continuity needed for a normal identity - the self can be transformed/destroyed by severe head injuries, diseases, toxins - brain scans allow social neuroscientists to find that certain areas in the brain become more active when ppl process info about themselves Do non-human animals show self-recognition? - great apes (chimps, gorillas, orangutans) are capable of self recognition - study done by Gordon Gallup put diff species animals in a room with mirror they first greeted the mirror with social responses (gesturing) but only the great apes used to mirror to groom, clean teeth, blow bubbles as well as sheer entertainment - he also anaesthetized the animals and put a red dot on the brow, only apes reached for their brow proving that they perceived the image as their own - this test was used on infants and developmental psychologists found that they recognize themselves at 18/24 months  apes/infants are the first clear expression of the concept me - recently bottlenose/killer/false killer whales and Asian elephants have been found to show self recognition What makes the self a social concept? - 1 step in development of a self concept is the ability to see yourself as a distinct entity - 2 step involves social factors: ppl serve as a mirror in which we see ourselves (looking-glass self) (Charles Horton Cooley) - George Herbert mead added that we incorporate what we think significant others think of us into our self concept - Susan Andersen/Serena Chen theorizes that the self is relational, we draw our sense of who we are from past/present significant relationships - The apes that Gallup tested that had been raised in isolation did not recognize themselves - Often our self-concepts match our perceptions of what others think of us BUT what we think of ourselves often does not match what others think of us Introspection How do ppl achieve insight into their own beliefs, attitudes, emotions and motivations? Self knowledge is derived from introspection, a looking inward at one’s own thoughts and feelings - we assume that for others to know us they would need info about your private thoughts, feelings and other inner states - however Richard nisbett and timothy Wilson foundt that research participants cannot accurately explain the causes or correlates of their own behavior  leading to the question: does introspection improve the accuracy of self knowledge - Wilson says that introspection sometimes impairs self knowledge - In a study he did the attitudes ppl reported having about did objects corresponded closely to their behavior toward those objects  the more they enjoyed a task the longer they spent doing it - after participants analyzed the reason for how they felt their attitudes did not correspond to their behavior  this is because we are busy processing info - ppl have difficult projecting forward/prediction how thy would feel in response to future emotional events (affective forecasting) - which is the process of prediction how one would feel in response to future emotional events - timothy Wilson and Daniel gilbert asked participants how they would feel after positive/negative events and found that ppl overestimate the strength and duration of their emotional rxn (impact bias)  voters predicted being happier if their candidate won, supporter of the winning/losing candidates did not differ in happiness levels - there are 2 reasons for the impact bias in affective forecasting: a. in the face of adversity, humans can be very resilient. Ppl are even more likely to overlook the coping mechanisms that others use resulting in a self-other diff by which we tend to predict that others will suffer even longer than we will b. when we introspect about the emotional impact on us of a future event: breakup, we focus on that single event neglecting to take into account the effects of other life experiences  study on weather and happiness at the uni of waterloo found that impact bias was less evident among east Asian participants than euro-Canadian Perceptions of our own behavior - Daryl Bem believes we can learn about ourselves by watching ou own behavior - This is called the self perception theory that when internal cues are difficult to interpret, ppl gain self-insight by observing their own behavior  have you ever listened to yourself argue with someone only to realize how angry you were - ppl learn about themselves through self-perception on when the situation alone seems insufficient to have caused their behavior  wolfed down a sandwich b/c you were paid to do so you wouldn’t assume you hungry - when ppl are gently coaxed into doing something, when they are not otherwise certain about how they feel they view themselves in ways that are consistent with the behavior  participants induced to describe themselves in flattering terms scored higher on a last test of self-esteem than did those who were led to describe themselves more modestly - Bem argued that ppl learn about themselves by observing their own chose behavior BUT you also can infer something about yourself by observing the behavior of someone else with whom you completely identify - Noah goldstien and Robert cialdini demonstrated this phenomenon in a study and called it vicarious self perception (students listened to interview with fellow student, told brainwaves resemble person being interviewed) Self-perceptions of emotion - the facial feedback hypothesis is that changes in facial expression can lead to corresponding changes in emotion - James laired attached electrodes to participants faces before showing them cartoons instructed them to contract facial muscles in ways that created smiles/frowns, participants rated what they saw as funnier and reported feeling happier when they were smiling than when they were frowning - Laird argues that facial expressions affect emotion through a process of self perception: if I’m smiling I must be happy - face is not necessary to experience emotion, woman had facial paralysis and despite inability to show emotion she experienced emotion in response to + and – visual images - expressive behaviors like body posture also provide us with sensory feedback and influence the way we feel BUT is it possible that the way you carry yourself affects emotional stat - sabine stepper and fritz strack shoes that this is possible by arranging ppl to sit slumped/upright by varying the height of the table they had to write on - those sitting upright reported feeling more pride Self-perceptions of motivation - mark twain was a self perception theorist who hypothesized that reward for an enjoyable activity undermined interest in that activity - this contradicts most psychological research which declares that we are all motivated by reward however the answer depends on how motivation is defined - intrinsic motivation originates in factors within a person, when a person engages in an activity for the sake of their own interest, challenge, enjoyment - extrinsic motivation originates in factors outside the person, when a person engages in an activity as a means to an end: money, grades, recognition, obligation, avoid punishment - although ppl do strive for reward what happens to intrinsic motivation once reward is no longer available - from twains standpoint if you are rewarded for listening to music your behavior becomes overjustified and can be attributed to extrinsic/intrinsic motives - this leads to the overjustification effect which is the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors  in other words observing that their own efforts have paid off, ppl wonder if the activity was worth pursuing - Mark Lepper shows this in an experiment with children, an expected reward undermined children’s intrinsic motivation to play with felt tipped markers, children who received an unexpected reward or no reward did not lose interest - Ppl are more creative when they feel interested and challenged by the work rather than when they feel pressured to make money fulfill obligations, meet deadlines, win competitions, impress others  intrinsically motivated > compelled by outside force - extrinsic benefits do not always undermine intrinsic motivation it all depends on how the reward is perceived and by whom  sincere verbal praise and providing positive feedback (scholarship) - finally individual differences in motivational orientation toward work should be considered ppl are intrinsically oriented and others are focused on the achievement of certain goals Influences of other people - according to Cooley’s looking glass self ppl help us define ourselves Social comparison - when asked who are you? Ppl describe themselves in ways that set themselves apart from others in their immediate vicinity - change someone’s social surroundings and you can change that persons spontaneous self description - Leon Festinger proposed the social comparison theory that ppl evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others - When putting this theory to the test sp focus on 2 questions: 1. when do we turn to others for comparative info - ppl engage in social comparison in states of uncertainty, when objective means of self evaluation are not available - but recent studies suggest that ppl judge themselves in relation to others even when more objective standards are available - the tendency to see ambiguous info in a self enhancing way is more likely when participants receive info about their own/others performance at the same time 2. of all ppl on earth who do we choose to compare ourselves - we look to others that who are similar/different to us in relevant ways, choice we make automatically, not necessarily being aware of it - ppl often cope with personal inadequacies by focusing on others who are less able or less fortunate than themselves Two-factor theory of emotion - when ppl are unclear about their own emotions they sometimes turn to others which is shown in an experiment by Stanley Schackter a. for others to influence your emotion your level of physiological arousal cannot be too intense or it will be experienced as aversive b. other ppl must be present as a possible explanation to events that preceded the change in their physiological state - ppl were frightened into thinking they would receive a painful shock and sought the company of others who were in the same predicament as they wanted to affiliate with similar others for the purpose of comparison - when they were not scared and only expected a mild shock/ or others were not taking part in the same experiment they preferred to be alone  misery doesn’t love any kind of company; it loves only miserable company - when ppl are uncertain about how they feel their emotional state is determined by the rxn of others around them 1. the person must experience the symptoms of physiological arousal 2. person must make a cognitive interpretation that explains the source of arousal  this is where ppl around us come in b/c their reactions help us interpret our arousal - to test this two-factor theory of emotion that the experience of emotion is based on 2 factors: physiological arousal and a cognitive interpretation of that arousal - 3 sets of participants were used 2 participants were given drugs and informed about the effects, 2 participants were given a placebo and 2 participants were given drugs and were not informed about the effects - drug uninformed participants felt happy/angry depending on the confederates performance - in the drug informed and placebo group participants were less influenced by social cues Autobiographical memories - without autobiographical memories, recollections of the sequences of events that have touched your life, you would have no coherent self-concept - self concept shapes our personal memories as well - when ppl are prompted to recall their own experiences they report events from the recent than from the distant past there are 2 exceptions to this rule: 1. older adults retrieve a large # of personal memories from their adolescence and early adult years (these years are busy and formative) 2. ppl tend to remember transitional “firsts” positive events, those that are surprising and unexpected are the most likely to be remembered - roger brown and james kulik coined the term flashbulb memories to describe these enduring, detailed, recollections and believed that humans are biologically equipped for survival purposes to print these dramatic events in memory - these flashbulb memories are not necessarily accurate or consistent over time - current view of ourselves is often affected by our views of our past selves as well as our views of our future selves - ppl are often motivated to distort the past in ways that are self-inflated  Anthony greenwald: the past is remembered as if it were a drama in which the self was the leading player  uni students were asked to recall all of their high school grades and then checked for accuracy, most of the errors in memory were grade inflations, most made when grades were low - George Herbert meads finding that out visions of the past are like pure escape fancies in which we rebuild the world according to our hearts desires is not true - In a series of studies students were asked to recall significant events from their own lives as well as to anticipate significant events likely to happened - They found that although ppl are hopeful about the future, their recollections from the past are balanced Culture and the self-concept - there are 2 contrasting cultural orientations, one values individualism and the virtues of independence, autonomy and self-reliance whereas collectivism values interdependence, cooperation and social harmony - individualism and collectivism are ingrained in a culture and mold out very self-conceptions and identities - westerns have an independent view of the self as an entity that is distinct, autonomous and self contained, many Asians, Africans and Latin Americans hold an interdependent view of the self that encompasses others in a larger social network - david trafimow noted the close like btw cultural orientation and conceptions of the self  Americans use trait descriptions to describe themselves: I am shy, Chinese identify themselves by group affiliations: I am a college student - cultural orientations also influence the way we perceive, evaluate and present ourselves in relation to others  markus and kitayama notices that: (1) ppl in individualistic cultures strive for personal achievement (self-enhancing) which those in collectivist cultures get more satisfaction from the status of a valued group (self-critical) (2) orientations to conformity and independence lead us to form preferences for things that fit in or stand out - everyone has both personal and collective aspects of the self to draw on, the part that comes to mind depends on the situation - finally there are also core differences btw cultures: ppl in east Asian cultures think in dialectical terms about contradictory characteristics (e.g. apparent opposites can coexist in a person at the same time or as a result of changes over time) (dialecticism) - contrasting sharply with north American and European perspective ppl differentiate seeming opposites on the assumptions that if one is right the other must be wrong Self esteem: An affective component of the self, consisting of a persons positive and negative self- evaluations The need for self-esteem Why do we have this need for self esteem: 1. we long to connect with others and gain their approval (mark leary/roy baumeister) 2. terror management theory: humans are biologically programmed for self preservation, we are scared of our own death and we cope with this fear by construction/accepting cultural worldviews about how, why and by whom earth was created - satisfying the need for self-esteem is critical to our entire outlook on life, lacking confidence traps you in a vicious self-defeating cycle and can even be hazardous to health - Jennifer crock and lora park think pursuing self-esteem causes anxiety, high stress, neglect to the needs of others and avoidance of activities high risk activities - Ulrich orth says self esteem peeks at 50 and declines as one ages and is the cause of particular life outcomes not the consequence Are there gender and race differences? - among adolescents and young adults males have higher self esteem than females do, although the difference is very small, particularly among older adults - black Americans outscore whites on self-esteem tests indicating that stigmatized minorities focus on their positive attributes Culture and self esteem - cross cultural comparisons suggest that ppl from collectivist cultur
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