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PSYB10 - Mid Term.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Mid-Term Review: Overview and Methods of Social Psychology:  Definition of social psych: o Study of how individuals think, feel and behave in a social context o Scientific study – social psych applies the scientific method of systematic observation, description and measurement to the study of the human condition o People’s private/unconscious beliefs and most passionate emotions o Difference: sociology compares people by group factors, while social psych focuses on the individual (in a group context) o Affect, Behaviour, Cognition  History: o subfield of philosophy o Triplett – performance affected by presence of others (cyclists slower training by themselves than with others) o Lewin – father of social psychology, we don’t know anything about person’s MIND  Interactionist perspective - Behaviour is a function of the interaction b/w the person and environment – interplay of internal and external factors on behaviour o WWII – studied affective advertisements for War Bonds (fear was affective) o Post war: discover how Nazi Germany happened? Milgram’s obedience to authority: found that people will do something they don’t want to do if told by authority  Hypothetico-deductive scientific method/experimental method – more philosophical o Examine past knowledge/research, form a theory, operationalize theory into hypothesis, test hypothesis and revise theory o Dependent variable – outcome (want to be able to predict) o Independent variable – predictor, variable that you think will predict DV o Hypothesis – an explicit, testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur o Theory – an organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena  Usually evaluated in terms of 3 criteria: simplicity, comprehensiveness and their ability to generate new hypotheses (known as generativity)  Best theories are elegant and precise, sparking further research  Methods of social psychology o Basic research – seeks to increase our understanding of human behaviour and is often designed to test a specific hypothesis from a specific theory o Applied research – has a different purpose; to make use of social psychology’s theories or methods to enlarge our understanding of naturally occurring events and to contribute to the solution of social problems o Operational definition - the specific way in which the conceptual variable is manipulated or measured; no single best way to go from a conceptual to operational variable (lots of trial and error) o Construct validity - extent to which: the manipulations in an experiment really manipulate conceptual variables they were designed to manipulate and the measure used in a study really measure the conceptual variables they were designed to measure o qualitative research - open-ended responses, observations and interviews o quantitative approach – where numerical data is collected in an objective, systematic and quantifiable way  Research Designs o Correlational designs – 2 DVs, non-experimental manipulation (random sampling)  Issue with this is the third variable problem, direction of causality  Need to perform an experiment to determine causality o Quasi-experimental designs – not manipulating anything ex. theory of mind in children (think everyone knows their thoughts); no causality  No experimental manipulation  Subject variable – using a known group (stratified random sampling) o Experimental designs – manipulated IV, random assignment, comparison/control group (ex. effects of certain drugs) IV causes DV o Meta-analysis – Using a set of statistical measures; can measure precisely how strong and reliable particular affects are  External validity – the extent to which the results obtained under one set of circumstances would also occur in a diff set of circumstances o Mundane realism – the extent to which the research setting resembles the real-world setting of interest, in order to study interpersonal action  When an experiment is properly conducted it is said to have internal validity o Control groups – participants receive all of the experimental procedures except the treatment o Assessing internal validity, flaws by researcher:  Experimenters have a strong expectation before experiment  If they know which conditions someone has been assigned to they may treat the person differently  Experimenter’s behaviour can affect participant’s behavior o Experimenter expectancy effects – best way to protect an experiment form the influence of experimenter’s expectations – keep experimenters uninformed  Informed Consent:  Statement of ethics of the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) called the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists considers a wide range of ethical issues  CPA code stipulates that researchers are obligated to guard the rights and welfare of all those who participate in their studies  Informed consent – ind must be asked if they want to participate and given adequate info to make a decision, free to withdraw at any point  Statistical significance = odds are quite good, but not necessarily always perfect o Is a possibility it occurred by chance o Also important in correlations  Correlation coefficient – when researchers examine the relationship b/w variables they can measure the strength and direction of the relationship b/w variables and calculate the CC o can range from -1.0 to +1.0 o the absolute value = how strongly the two variables are associated o the larger the absolute value the stronger the correlation o coefficient +/- determines the direction of the relationship o most correlation coefficients have moderate values (-.39 or + .57) o correlations obtained at a single point in time across a # of ind = concurrent o Prospective studies are especially useful in determining whether certain behaviours are age associated  T test – any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic follows a Student’s t distribution if the null hypothesis is supported Social Cognition:  Thinking about social objects (people and non-people)  Social objects – a physical object that has the ability to engage in social cognition o Automatic cognition (thinking) o Controlled cognition (thinking)  Perception – becoming aware of something through the senses o Pre-attentive processes – rapid processing of complex scene (something catches your eye) o Gaze detection – more likely to look at picture when eyes are looking at YOU  Processing/Encoding o Encoding – selection info from the environment and storing it into memory o Attention  Selective perception – focus on something (you can focus so hard you will miss the gorilla playing basketball) o Schemas – mental structures used to organize knowledge about the social world around themes/subjects (opinions you bring)  Efficient processing – pay attention to things that are schema consistent  Guide attention and memory  Bias against schema incongruent information – example: stereotype  Self-fulfilling prophecy – example: 20 females pose for pictures, 20 males rate, male given picture of attractive/unattractive… talk on phone with girl  Result – women’s behaviour different based on what partner believed of them = self-fulfilling prophecy  Storage/Knowledge Representation o Prototype theory of categorization – objects based on sim to a prototype (ie. Chair made of computers still we can recognize as a chair)  Semantic network – related concepts are stored closely together in memory  Spreading activation – thinking about one concept will prime/make accessible a related concept and inhibit unrelated concepts  Retrieval/Application: o Accessibility – the extent to which concepts are at the forefront of your mind  Effects of thought suppression – suppressed thought is HYPERACCESSIBLE (instead of trying to not think of something, distract yourself… works better) o Priming – process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility to another concept  Algorithms – mechanical step by step process for arriving at answer, effortful but highly successful  Heuristics – mental short cuts (fast and efficient, parallel processing) but error prone o Availability heuristic – base judgement on the ease with which they can bring something to mind o Representativeness heuristic – classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case  base rate bias (tendency to underestimate the impact of base rates on accurate prediction) o Anchoring and adjustment heuristic – people make judgements using the first answer that came to them as an anchor; adjustment – people try and change view but aren’t able to sufficiently o Simulation heuristic – people overestimate the probability of an event if they can image or “simulate” it in their minds  Counterfactual thinking – tendency people have to imagine alternative to reality The Self:  An individual consciousness of one’s own identity – feelings, observations and thoughts  Self-awareness – awareness of the self as an entity that is distinct from others and the environment (example: Rouge Test “mark test” – person/animal has self-awareness they will touch their own face, otherwise they will touch the mirror or look at it funny)  Robert Wicklund: self-awareness theory – people are not usually self-focused, but certain situations predictably force us to turn inward and become the objects of our own attention o The more self-focused people are the more likely they are to find themselves in a bad mood or depressed o Self-awareness theory suggest 2 basic ways of coping with discomfort:  Shape up by behaving in ways that reduce our self-discrepancies OR  Ship out by withdrawing from self-awareness o When people are self-focused they tend to behave in ways that are consistent either with their own personal values or with socially accepted ideals o Self-awareness theory states that if a successful reduction of self-discrepancy seems unlikely ind will take a second route: to escape from self-awareness o Jay Hull: people drown themselves in a bottle as a way to escape the negative implications of self-awareness  Private self-consciousness – the tendency to introspect about our inner thoughts and feelings  Public self-consciousness – the tendency to focus on our outer public image; particularly  Darly Bem (1972) – people can learn about themselves the same way outside observers do – by watching their own behaviour o Self-perception theory – internal states are weak/difficult to interpret; people infer their own behaviour by what they think or how they feel by observing their own behaviour o People do not infer their own internal states from behaviour that occurred in the presence of compelling situational pressures such as reward or punishment o People sometimes learn about themselves by observing their own freely chosen behaviour  Noah Goldstein and Robert Cialdini (2007) – vicarious self-perception: you infer something about yourself by observing the behaviour of someone else you completely identify with  Levels of the self: minimal self, objectified self and symbolic (narrative) self o Minimal self – conscious experience of the self as distinct from the environment (double stimulation – you know how the wood feels to your hand but NOT how your hand feels to the wood; everything that is NOT you = single stimulation) o Objectified self – cognitive capacity to serve as the object of one’s own (or others’) attention (example: Mark test, you can think about people AND about yourself) o Narrative/symbolic self – ability to form an abstract mental representation of oneself through language; uniquely human (develop a more complex schema for what it means to be YOU, usually through words ie. Creative, funny, smart, loving)  Overjustification effect – the tendency for intrinsic to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward (extrinsic factors) *dangerous o People get paid for a task they already enjoy they may lose interest for it; Example: children with markers o Reward perception plays a key factor in its role on performance  Self-concept – the concept of who you are; the sum of total beliefs that people have about themselves  Self-schema – how your sense of self is organized cognitively in your mind (cognitive representation of the self-concept); concepts or words associated with your sense of self o 20 statements test (TST) to measure self-concept: write down 20 “I am ___” statements, analyzed as different domains ex. personality descriptors and social roles  Self-complexity – the depth and complexity of your self-concept, complexity determined by how many descriptors you used o Implicit personality test – see a trait on screen, press button that says “me OR not me”; idea is you press button faster for a trait that describes you  Global versus contextualized self: global self-concept = “I am…” 20 questions test; contextualized self- concept “I am ___ when __” this is more true to reality because takes context into account  Working Self-Concept – subset of your self-concept that is presently accessible (aspect of self-concept that is currently primed in your mind); central aspects of self require no priming (always there)  Self-Concept Centrality – some aspects of the self-concept are more personally important to you than others (central aspects are chronically accessible in semantic network) o Measuring self-concept centrality (ex. bulls eye test, write ME in the centre and fill with words describing person, words closer to ME describe person more) o Self-evaluative maintenance – how we maintain our A+ evaluation of ourselves:  Someone close to you outperforms you: you feel threatened if domain is central to your self-concept; feel proud if domain not central to self-concept  Self-handicapping – strategy to buffer the self from an anticipated failure or embarrassment by undermining one’s own performance (ex. which feels worse? Studying hard and getting a C, or not studying and getting a C) o Example with tapes that predict future success, when test mattered participants took the tape that would hurt their success; result – set themselves up for failure  Self-verification – the need to seek confirmation of one’s self-concept, motivated by desire to be understood but only for traits central to the self-concept o Example: chose depressed and non-depressed people  read something  choose which graduate to give you feedback (negative or positive one?)  depressed people choose negative graduate o Why? Because these people will verify their negative self-view  Multiple selves – do we have just one self? NO o Independent and interdependent selves: (idea is we have BOTH of these)  Independent self – view of self as distinct from others  Interdependent self- we are inherently linked with others (includes other peoples view of themselves in one self)  Possible Selves – type of self-knowledge that pertains to how we think about our potential and our future (who we WANT to become); ideal selves = we want to become, neutral selves = we could become, selves = we are afraid of becoming  Self-discrepancy theory – actual self (who you are now)  depression  ideal self (who would you ideally like to be); actual self (who you are now)  anxiety  ought self (what other people think you should be)  Self-esteem – self-evaluative component of the self-concept o Global self-esteem – typical level of self-esteem o State self-esteem – self-esteem that fluctuates based on situation/context (3 domains: social state self-esteem, performance state self-esteem and appearance state self-esteem) o Implicit self-esteem – how closely you associate yourself with the concept of “good”  Measuring: Implicit association test (IAT) – categorize stimuli into 1 of 4 categories where 2 categories are mapped onto each button; speed of categorization when 2 concepts are paired together reflects how associated those concepts are in the semantic network  Sociometer Theory – the need to belong is evolutionarily adaptive and self-esteem monitors the likelihood of social exclusion o Sociometer – an internal monitor of social acceptance/rejection  Perceived regard – how we believe we are viewed by others, tend to underestimate how + close others like us o Our friends rate our personality higher then we rate our owns, we have a sense that our friends views us more positively  Self-Serving Biases: o Positive illusions – a set of common overly favourable and unrealistic beliefs about the Self (covers 3 domains: skills/competency, personal control and optimism regarding + outcomes for the self)  Self-enhancement – tendency to see oneself as better – than average on favourable characteristics  Illusion of control – overestimation of the degree to which we can control events and outcomes (Ex. blowing on dice)  Unrealistic optimism – overestimation of the likelihood that + events will happen to us (underestimation of how likely that – events will happen to us)  BIRG - Self-esteem is influenced by ind and groups with whom you identify o Robert Sialdini (1976): bask in reflected glory (BIRG) – by showing off connections to successful others o CORF – cut off reflected failure o Lower levels of testosterone in males that watched their team lose a game o Social Comparisons – evaluation of oneself by comparing the self to others  Upward comparison – comparison to someone better off; makes us feel good, think of them as a role model  Downward comparison – someone worse off; makes us feel good to do this o Right prefrontal cortex and self-recognition  Mark Snyder (1987): self-monitoring – the tendency to regulate one’s own behaviour to meet the demands of social situations o Ind who are high self-monitoring appear to have a repertoire of selves from which to draw o Self-monitoring Scale o Social psychologists disagree as to whether the Self-Monitoring Scale measures one global trait or a combination of two or more specific traits, also disagree as to whether high and low self-monitors represent 2 discrete types of people or just points along a continuum  Self-monitoring scores tend to drop with age (As people get older they become more secure about their identities)  Neither high nor low self-monitoring is desirable – unless carried to the extreme Self-Regulation:  The strategies used to control (regulate) your behaviour – pursuit of long-term goal, monitor your response to environmental stimuli  Delay of gratification – ability to forgo an immediate reward for a larger future reward o Examples with kids sitting in front of oreos for 30 min get double the oreos; results: later in life those who delay gratification = higher verbal and math SAT scores, parents rated the children as better able to concentrate, to cope with frustration and stress  Self-Regulatory Strategies: o Self-distancing – self-immersed perspective – recall events in first person, self-distanced perspective – recall the event in third person  Example – take BP  anger manipulation  regulation strategy (self-immersed OR distanced condition)  BP recorded and emotion survey; result? Emotional intensity decreased in those that used the distancing strategy, also lower BP o Emotion regulation – self-regulation specific to the control of emotional experience  Suppression (requires a lot of effort) – inhibiting emotion: expressive behaviour while emotionally aroused  Reappraisal (requires relatively little effort) – interpreting potentially emotion: relevant stimuli in unemotional terms  Example: physio baseline  neutral video emotional video regulation strategy (watch, reappraise, suppress)  emotional video; results ones that suppressed showed least expressed disgust, those that just watched expressed the most disgust  Situation selection (requires relatively little effort) – controlling your emotions by avoiding situations that you think will make you feel bad and entering situations that you think will make you feel good  Example: Apply EEG cap  regulation strategy (watch OR suppress)  emotional video  attentional control task (form of executive control, how much you can ignore relevant stimuli); result spent cognitive resources trying to suppress their emotions  Response vs. Antecedent Strategies –  Scope of Self-Regulatory Costs – self-regulation in one domain affects ability to exert control on subsequent tasks in another domain o Example: eating task with differing self-regulatory demands (cookies, radishes, no food)  impossible puzzles  how long will participants keep trying?; result: cookies and no food = persistent with task, radish = least persistent  What is the nature of self-regulation? At least 2 competing theories… o Resource model of self-control – self-control is like a muscle so it can tire out within a situation, but exercising self-control over time increases its strength (long term increase in willpower) o ?Process model of depletion (more recent theory) – more of a cognitive model proposed  Self and Self-Regulation – we hold complex representations of ourselves, motivated to view ourselves positively, have ability to control ourselves, although the effort of self-control is hard to sustain for a long time o If we develop our ability to regulate our own behaviour and emotions, doors open up for us in life Perceiving and Predicting Others:  Types of social information: o Behavioural input – verbal behaviour (things we say) o Non Verbal Behaviour  Emblems – gestures that have well-understood meaning within a culture (ex. good job = thumbs up)  Thin slices – an approach within psychology focused on the attributional power of brief exposure to others  Behavioural correlates of SES: 2 people take a quiz; results that naïve observers accurately detected participants income, mothers’ education and subjective SES;  Categorization of ambiguous groups: Can you categorize person from their face alone? Yes! o Context – it matters, provides additional input and can completely change attribution o Schemas – what you expect is what you get  Attribution – explanation for an observed behaviour of a social object o How automatic is attribution? Very (love triangle video with shapes example)  Mind perception - o Attribution Theory – do we attribute behaviour to something about the person (internal) or something about the situation (external)?  Internal attribution – attributing a person’s behaviour to something intrinsic to that person  External attribution – attributing a person’s behaviour to something about the situation in which the behaviour occurred (NOT changing beliefs regarding person’s character or personality)  Situational attribution –  Correspondence bias – tendency to infer that a person’s behaviour corresponds to their disposition, personality or attitude  Fundamental attribution Error (FAE) – tendency to overestimate the influence of internal causes for behaviour and underestimate external causes (when perceiving self: much more likely to attribute own behaviour to external causes) example: participants rate how in favour author was of Castro knowing that they were either assigned/willing wrote the Castro essay; result – we have a tendency to attribute to internal behaviour regardless of how EVEN the situation is  Cultural outcome – English paper made internal attributions to Chinese person killing students while Chinese papers made fewer internal attributions  Perceptual Salience (explanation for FAE) – tendency to overestimate the causal role of information the grabs our attention  2 step process of attribution (another competing explanation for FAE) – FAE occurs through the same process as Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic: 1) make an internal attribution 2) attempt to adjust from internal attribution by considering situational constraints o Covariation Theory – without being taught statistics we recognize variants and use it to extract patterns; 3 factors – consensus, distinctiveness and consistency  Consensus – do other people behave in this way? Behaviour is unique to person  Distinctiveness – does this person behave this way with other stimuli? Behaviour is unique to situation  Consistency – does the person behave like this over time? Behaviour unique to this moment in time o Example: depending on your different response to each, first ask about consistency then distinctiveness and then consensus use this to determine if attribution is internal, external or situational o Self-serving biases:  Self-serving attributions – you do really well on a test because… you are smart, you do really poorly on a test because… the test was hard (positive outcome – explain it in terms of internal factors, negative outcome – explain in terms of external factors) o Unrealistic optimism – tendency to expect: bad things are less likely to happen to you than to other people; good things are more likely to happen to you than other people o Just world hypothesis – belief that good things will happen to good people and bad things to bad people; gives us sense of control over the world, leads to rejection and blaming of victims (ex. if someone gets raped we say it happened because of the clothes they were wearing) o False Consensus Error – assumption that more people share your beliefs, attitudes and preferences than actually do (people who have cheated estimate more people cheat, people who don’t cheat estimate fewer people cheat) o Ultimate Attribution Error – tendency to make internal attributions about an entire social group’s disposition based on the behaviour of one group member (only applies to SOCIAL groups) o Information integration theory – impressions found of others are based on a combination or integration of: personal dispositions of the perceiver and on a weighted average, not a simple average o Prediction  First impressions – frozen, hard to change; are people accurate? YES / NO  Belief perseverance – once we believe something we continue to believe it despite new evidence  Implicit personality theories – type of schema used to group certain personality traits together (ex. Jane is a warm person will she lend Jeric $10 for lunch? YES)  Distinguishing Truth from Deception:  Social perception – people try and hide/stretch truth about themselves  Face can communicate emotion but is easier to control than the hands/feet  People only 54% accurate in judging the truth and deception  2 problems:  Mismatch b/w the behavioural cues that actually signal deception and those used by perceivers to detect deception  People tend to assume that the way to spot a liar is o watch for signs of stress in his/her behaviour o Police officers better at detecting deception Social Interaction:  Back and forth exchange of verbal/nonverbal behaviour between 2 or more people (both people need to communicate, ex. lectures are one sided) o Average time span – non-conflict interactions 10 minutes, conflict interactions 3 minutes o Methods of communication that qualify: in person, over the phone, online instant chat (not e- mail)  Field Theory – trying to understand/create mathematical equation to explain all of social interaction o Example: person’s behaviour is a function of both who they are (person) and the situation they find themselves in (the environment) B(behaviour) = function of (P factors internal to the person, factors in external environment E)  Person and situation are independent factors affecting the behaviour  Person affects the environment and behaviour, environment affects behaviour B=f(P x E)  Example: Clever Hans – classic effect of person on the environment, horse that could add, no intentional cues given to Hans but cues from the audience; result – people underestimate affect they have on the horse  Reciprocal determinism – triadic reciprocity (they all effect each other equally all the time, triangle)  Ge
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