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review for midterm.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Review for Midterm Overview and Methods of Social Psychology Social Psychology: uses scientific methods „to understand and explain how the thought, feelings, and behaviour of an individual are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of other people‟ ABCs of Social Psychology:  Affect: emotions, feelings, and mood  Behaviour: verbal and nonverbal action  Cognition: thought, sensation, perception, processing, and memory History of Social Psychology  Interactionist perspective: emphasis on how both an individual‟s personality and environmental characteristics influence behaviour Hypothetico-deductive Scientific Method/Experimental Method  Hypothesis: testable prediction about conditions under which an event will occur  Theory: organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena  Dependent variable: the measured effect of manipulating the independent variable  Independent Variables: the variable that is manipulated Methods of social psych  Basic research: research designed to increase the understanding of human behavior, often by testing hypotheses based on a theory  Applied research: practical research for present day issues  Operational definition: specific procedures for manipulating or measuring a conceptual variable  Construct validity: extent to which the measures used in a study measure the variables they were designed to measure and the manipulations in an experiment manipulate the variables they were designed to measure  Qualitative research: collection of data through open-ended responses, observation, and interviews  Quantitative research: collection of numerical data through objective testing and statistical analysis Research Designs  Correlational Designs: designed to measure the association between variables that are not manipulated by the researcher. No causality. Covariance and prediction.  Quasi-experimental designs: no experimental manipulation. The independent variable is a known group. Covariance and prediction. T-test. No causality. o Subject variable: variable that characterizes pre-existing differences among participants in a study  Experimental designs: can demonstrate causal relationships because the experimenter has control over the events that occur and participants are randomly assigned to conditions. T-test, regression, ANOVA, Bayesian methods  Meta-analysis: set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects Random assignment: method of assigning participants to the various conditions of an experiment so that each participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being in any of the conditions Internal validity: degree to which there can be a reasonable certainty that the independent variables in an experiment caused the effects obtained on the dependent variable External validity: degree to which there can be reasonable confidence that the results of a study would be obtained for other people and in other situations Mundane realism: degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world Deception: in the context of research, a method that provides false information to participants Confederate: someone that is aware of the true experiment, working with the researcher Informed consent: In research ethics, the principle that participants in an experiment by informed in advance of all aspects of the research that might influence their decision to participate Statistical Analyses  Statistical significance: The mathematical likelihood that an association is not due to change, judged by criterion set by the analyst (often that the probability is less than 5 out of 100 or p < 0.05)  Correlation coefficient: A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association between two variables; ranges from -1.0 to +1.0  T-Test: A statistical examination of two population means. A two-sample t-test examines whether two samples are different and is commonly used when the variances of two normal distributions are unknown and when an experiment uses a small sample size. Social Cognition Social Cognition: thinking about social objects Social objects: a physical object that has the ability to engage in social cognition Automatic cognition: outside conscious control, happens very quickly Controlled cognition: reasoned thinking Perception: the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses  Pre-attentive processes: rapid processing of a complex scene o Rapid: less than 250 milliseconds o Complex: large, multi-element display of information  Gaze detection: measurements of eye movement Processing/Encoding  Encoding: selecting information from the environment and storing it in memory  Attention: selective perception o Selective attention: the process by which a person can selectively pick out one message from a mixture of messages occurring simultaneously  Schemas: mental structures used to organize knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects. Is used for efficiency, can guide attention and memory. However, it can lead to bias against any schema incongruent information o Self-fulfilling prophecy: process by which one‟s expectations about a person eventually lead that person to behave in ways that confirm those expectations Storage & Knowledge Retrieval  Prototype Theory of Categorization: objects are classified based on similarity to a prototype o Semantic Network: related concepts are stored closely together in memory o Spreading Activation: thinking about one concept will activate/prime/make accessible a related concept and inhibit unrelated concepts Retrieval: The extent to which concepts are at the forefront of your mind  Accessibility: extent to which concepts are at the forefront of your mind o Thought suppression: the suppressed thought actually becomes hyperaccessible – it‟s all you can think about  Priming: process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of another concept Algorithms: mechanical, step-by-step process for arriving at an answer  Slow and deliberate o Serial processing o Effortful  Highly successful, low error rate Heuristics: mental shortcuts. Fast and efficient, error prone  Parallel processing: Parallel processing is the ability of the brain to do many things (aka, processes) at once  Availability Heuristic: mental shortcut where people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind o Stems from semantic network and availability  Representativeness Heuristic: mental shortcut where people classify something by how typical it is to a typical base o Base rate bias: tendency to underestimate the impact of base rates on accurate prediction  Anchoring Heuristic: mental shortcut where people make judgments using the first answer that came to them as an „anchor‟ o Adjustment Heuristic: bias where even when people learn their anchor is untrustworthy, they do not adjust sufficiently away from it  Simulation Heuristic: mental shortcut where people overestimate the probability of an event if they can imagine or „simulate‟ it in their mind o Counterfactual thinking: when thinking of how a situation occurred, you think of alternate ways it could have occurred. You then become focused on the imaginary situation The Self The Self: Individual consciousness of one‟s own identity  Thoughts, feelings, and observations Self-Awareness: awareness of the self as an entity that is distinct from others and the environment  Mark Test: is that paint on me or the creature in the mirror?  Self-awareness theory: when we focus our attention on ourselves, we evaluate and compare our current behavior to our internal standards and values. We become self-conscious as objective evaluators of ourselves  Private self-consciousness: tendency to introspect and examine one's inner self and feelings  Public self-consciousness: awareness of the self as it is viewed by others. o This kind of self-consciousness can result in self-monitoring and social anxiety Levels of the self:  Minimal self: conscious experience of the self as distinct from the environment  Objectified self: cognitive capacity to serve as the object of one‟s own (or others‟) attention  Narrative/Symbolic self: ability to form an abstract mental representation of oneself through language (“I am-”) Self-perception theory: when internal cues are difficult to interpret, people gain self- insight by observing their own behaviour  Overjustification effect: The tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors Self-concept: your concept of who you are (qualities, identities, roles etc.) / Self- Schema: cognitive representation of the self-concept (guides processing of self-related information)  Twenty Statements Test: I am (fill in the blank with personality descriptors and social roles)  Implicit Measurement of Self –Schema: Is this trait ME or NOT ME Self-complexity: depth and complexity of your self-concept  Operationalized as the number of distinct aspects used to define the Self- Concept Global and Contextualized Self-Concept  Global: I am (insert trait here) always  Contextualized: I am (insert trait here) when (insert situation here) o Buffers negative feelings after failure Working Self-Concept: subset of your Self-Concept that is presently accessible. Includes:  Recently primed aspects of the self  Contextually distinctive  „Central‟ aspects of self Self-Concept Centrality: some aspects of the Self-Concept are more important to you than others  Measuring self-concept centrality: Bulls-eye test – things that are more important will be more centered towards „me‟ Self-Evaluative Maintenance: If someone close to you outperforms you in a specific domain, you will:  You will be threatened if the domain is central to your self-concept  You will be proud if the domain is not central to your self-concept  If domain is central to the self-concept, you will: o Distance self from the relationship o Distance self from task domain  If domain is not central to the self-concept, you will: o Vicarious self-esteem boost o Magnitude of self-esteem boost proportional to closeness of relationship Self-Handicapping: strategy to buffer the self from an anticipated failure or embarrassment by undermining one‟s own performance Self-verification: the need to seek confirmation of one‟s self-concept  Motivated by desire to be understood  Holds true even if Self-concept is negative – but only for traits that are central to the self-concept Multiple Selves: we have many views of the Self  Independent self: view of self as distinct from others  Interdependent Self: self as inherently linked with others (includes other people in one‟s view of self)  Possible Selves: type of self-knowledge that pertains to how we think about our potential and our future Hazel Markus o Ideal selves we want to become o Neutral selves we could become o Selves we are afraid to become  Self-discrepancy theory: We have our Actual Self (who we are now), our Ideal Self (who you would ideally like to be), and our Ought Self (who other people think we should be) Tory Higgins o Not meeting our Ideal Self leads to depression o Not meeting our Ought Self to anxiety Self-esteem: self-evaluative component of the self-concept  Global self-esteem: typical level of self-esteem  State self-esteem: self-esteem that fluctuates based on situation/context. Typically viewed as having three distinct domains: o Social state self-esteem o Performance state self-esteem o Appearance state self-esteem  Implicit self-esteem: how closely you associate yourself with the concept of „good‟ o Measuring implicit self-esteem – Implicit Associations Test (IAT): Participants categorize stimuli into one of four categories (Me-Good; Me- Bad; Not Me-Good; Not Me-Bad). o The speed of categorization when two concepts are paired together reflects how closely they are connected in the semantic network  Sociometer Theory: the need to belong is evolutionarily adaptive and self-esteem monitors the likelihood of social exclusion o Sociometer: an internal monitor of social acceptance/rejection Perceived regard: how we believe we are viewed by others  We tend to underestimate how much other people like us  Friend‟s view of us is more positive than our view of ourselves; perceived regard is more positive than self-view; we underestimate how much our friends like us Self-serving biases: The tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors  Positive illusions: set of common overly favourable and unrealistic characteristics about the self. Covers three domains: skills/competency; personal control; optimism regarding positive outcomes for the self o Self-enhancement: tendency to see oneself as better-than-average in comparison to the general population o Illusion of control: overestimation of the degree to which we can control events and outcomes o Optimism bias: overestimation of the likelihood that good things will happen. Also: underestimation of the likelihood that bad things will happen to us.  Basking in reflected glory (BIRG): to increase self-esteem by associating with others who are successful  Upward social comparisons: comparison of the Self to someone who is better off than them  Downward social comparisons: comparisons of the Self to someone who is worse off than us Neural underpinnings of the Self: what parts of the brain involved the self  Self-referential information processing: prefrontal cortex – medial prefrontal lobes  Self-recognition: right prefrontal lobe Self-monitoring: tendency to change behaviour in response to the self-presentation concerns of the situation Self-regulation Self-regulation: strategies used to control (regulate) your behaviour  Pursuit of a long term goal  Monitor your response to environmental stimuli Delay of gratification: ability to forgo an immediate reward for a larger, future reward  Bing Study Methods: children were given a treat: if they could hold out on not eating it for a certain period of time, they could have double the treat. Or they could not hold out and just get the original amount  Long term outcomes of the ability to Delay: o Higher verbal and math SAT scores o Parents rated the children as: better able to concentrate; better able to cope with frustration and stress o Parents and teachers rated the children as having greater cognitive and social competence ratings Self-regulatory strategies:  Self-distancing o Self-immersed perspective: recall event in the first person (i.e. from the perspective of your own eyes) o Self-distanced perspective: recall event in the third person (i.e. from the perspective of an observer)  Emotion regulation: self-regulation specific to the control of emotional experience o Reappraisal: Inhibiting emotion-expressive behaviour while emotionally aroused; antecedent/response-focused o Suppression: interpreting potentially emotion-relevant stimuli in unemotional terms; response-focused o Situation selection: controlling your emotions by avoiding situations that you think will make you feel bad and entering situations that you think will make you feel good; antecedent-focused o Response- versus antecedent-focused strategies: response requires a lot of effort while antecedent requires relatively little effort o Cognitive cost of emotion regulation: you experience more stress and a loss of attention while suppressing emotions  Scope of self-regulatory costs: self-regulation in one domain affects ability to exert control on subsequent tasks in another domain Theories of self-regulation  Resource model: self-control is like a muscle so it can tire out within a situation = ego depletion. But exercising self-control over time increases its strength = long- term increase in willpower  Process model: shifts in motivation and shifts in attention play off each other. Reduced motivation to exert control, increased motivation to act on impulse. Reduced attention to cues signalling control, increased attention to reward. o The first time around, we might be able to exert self-control. The second time around, the shifts in attention and control leads to self-control failure at Time 2. Perceiving and Predicting Others Types of social information Verbal Behaviour: any behaviour that is spoken Nonverbal behaviour  Emblems: gestures that have well-understood meaning within a culture (thumbs up etc.)  Thin Slices: approach within social psychology focused on the attributional power of brief exposure to others o Behavioural correlates of Socio-Economic Status (SES): naïve observers accurately detected parents‟ income, mothers‟ education, and subjective SES. Low SES participants spent less time grooming, doodling, manipulating objects. o Categorization of ambiguous groups: Can you categorize a person into an ambiguous group from their face alone? population accuracy for ambiguous groups is 64% Context: provides additional input, can completely change attribution Schemas: what you expect is what you get Attribution: explanation for an observed behaviour of a social object  Automaticity of attributions: very automatic o Mind perception: based on pattern matching in our brains between situations and behaviour. (Does this seem appropriate in this situation? Has it before?) Attribution Theory: do we attribute behaviour to something about the person or something about the situation?  Internal Attributions: attributing a person‟s behaviour to something intrinsic to that person. o Personality, disposition, attitude, or character  External attributions: attributing a person‟s behaviour to something about the situation in which the behaviour occurred o Specifically not changing beliefs regarding the person‟s character or personality  Situational attributions: Attribution to factors external to an actor, such as the task, other people, or luck  Correspondence bias: tendency to infer that a person‟s behaviour corresponds to their disposition, personality, or attitude Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE): when perceiving others – tendency to overestimate the influence of internal causes for behaviour and underestimate external causes. When perceiving self – much more likely to attribute own behaviour to external causes  Cultural Variability in FAE: Gang Lu study o Chinese were more likely to attribute his breakdown to external attributions, instead of internal attributions like the English. Explanations for FAE  Perceptual Salience: tendency to overestimate the causal role of information that grabs our attention  Two-step process of attribution: FAE occurs through the same process as Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic o 1. Make an internal attribution o 2. Attempt to adjust away from internal attribution by considering situational constraints Covariation theory: people are lay statisticians  Consensus: do other people behave this way? o If no, the behaviour is unique to the person (Internal)  Distinctiveness: does this person behave like this with other stimuli? o If no, the behaviour is unique to the situation (External)  Consistency: does the person behave like this over time? o If no, behaviour is unique to this moment in time (Situational) Self-serving biases  Self-serving attributions o Positive outcome for self: explain it in terms of internal factors o Negative outcome for self: explain it in terms of external factors  Defensive Attributions: protecting ourselves from reality o Unrealistic optimism: tendency to expect that bad things are less likely to happen to you than other people and good things are more likely to happen to you than other people o Just World Hypothesis: Belief that good things happen to good people and bad things to bad people – gives us a sense of control over the world. Can lead to rejection and blaming of victims.  False consensus effect: assumption that more people share your beliefs, attitudes, and preferences than actually do  Ultimate Attribution Error: tendency to make internal attributions about an entire social group‟s distribution based on the behaviour of one group member. o Only applies to social outgroups Information integration theory: How a person integrates information from a number of sources in to make an overall judgment Prediction  First impressions o Belief perseverance: The tendency to cling to one‟s initial belief even after receiving new information that contradicts or disconfirms the basis of that belief  Implicit personality theories: type of schema used to group certain personality traits together o Warm-generous; cold-selfish Social Interaction Social Interaction: back-and-forth exchange of verbal or nonverbal behaviour between 2 or more people  Average time o Non-conflict interactions: 10 minutes o Conflict interactions: 3 minutes  Methods of communication that qualify o In person o Over the phone o Online Field Theory: a person‟s behaviour is a function of both who they are and the situation they find themselves in. B = f(P,E)  B= behaviour; P = factors internal to the person (disposition); E = factors in the external environment (Situational)  Reciprocal Determinism: all component affect each other; B =g(f(B x E) x f(P X B)) P=f(BxE) P B B=g(PxE) E=f(PxB) E General Social Interaction Cycle: describes dyadic interaction. Assigned roles – actor initiates interaction, target is the object of actor‟s action. The roles are arbitrary.  Impression formation: forming impressions of a person based on how we first see them  Cyclical Social Interactions: noise gun experiment o P1 is told that P2 is either hostile or nonhostile. P1 then uses noise gun more frequently for the „hostile‟ subject o In retaliation, P2 uses the gun more frequently and appears hostile. P1 then rates P2 has being dispositionally more hostile o If Person 2 is told the use of their gun reflects their personality. They are made to internalise this behaviour, they are hostile to
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