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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lecture 1 Social Psychology - Uses scientific methods to understand and explain how the thought,feelingandbehaviour ofindividualsare influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others [crosses species with not just humans, primates]. ABCs of Social Psychology Affect - emotions, feelings and mood Behaviour - verbal and nonverbal action Cognition - thought, sensation, perception, processing and memory What’sa“t-test?” Compares the average difference between two groups • e.g., is the average GPA of 4th-year UTSC students higher than the average GPA of 1st-year UTSC students? How to interpret the results • A t-test gives you two things: a t-statistic that is a standardized value of the difference between the group averages, and a probability value (abbreviated as a “p-value”) • The p-value of a t-test tells you how likely it is that the difference between two groups (i.e., the t-statistic) occurred by random chance What’saCorrelation? Compares the concomitant relationship between two variables • e.g., does the amount of sleep a UTSC student gets predict their cGPA? How to interpret results A correlational analysis gives you two things: a correlation coefficient (abbreviated with the italicized, lowercase letter, r), and a probability value (abbreviated: “p-value”) ➡- The size of the correlation coefficient, r, reflects the “practical significance” of the effect ➡ There is no relationship if |r|< .1, a “small” relationship if .1 ≤ |r|< .3, “medium” relationship if 0.3 ≤|r|< 0.5, and a “large relationship” if 0.5 ≤ |r| ➡ If you square the correlation coefficient (i.e., r2), then the resulting number is the proportion of changes in each variable that are accounted for by the other variable ➡ The p-value of a correlation test tells you the probability that you would observe a relationship of this size in your data if no relationship exists HowDoIChooseBetweenaT-testorCorrelation? Lecture 1 • It depends on your research question! • Easy ways to figure it out: • What kind of variables did you identify for your research question? • If both are non-categorical (i.e., “continuous”) ➝Correlation • If one is categorical➝t-test, with the categorical variable as the independent variable What do you want to know about the world? - Whether groups of people DIFFER from one another?➝Ttest - Whether two things co-occur among people? ➝Correlation Triplett(1898) •Social Facilitation: Performance affected by presence of others (typically, presence of others enhances performances) KurtLewin “FatherofSocialPsychology” Research interests were in Perception and cognition, and created “Dyadic Interactionism” - all we know about another person is their behaviour but we don’t know about anything about anyone else, other than their behaviour WorldWarII • Government interest in Social Psychology, studied were linked to Persuasion and Propaganda, specifically. • Key Social Psychologists funded to study effective War Bond Ads WorldWarII-Post-war: - social psychology was an actual discipline, questions such as “How did Nazi Germany happen?” (understand more of the processes and ability to avoid future wars) • Stanley Milgram’s “Obedience to Authority” Cultural Events (follow orders, even when harming someone, but when their is a leader/order...) MurderofKittyGenovese,March13th,1964 •At least 39 witnesses, murdered burtally, and toke 45 mins attacker stabbed her and shes screaming, attacker leaves and returns to attack and she died. • No one intervened or even called the police, when police came to canvas, witnesses said they saw it but they did not understand why no one intervened • Darley’s & Latané’s “Bystander Apathy” research Cultural Events JonestownMassSuicide:November18th,1978 907 people poisoned themselves (or were poisoned by their parents) SocialPsychologicalToolkit • Self-report/surveys (pencil & paper, computer survey, interviews) Lecture 1 • Reaction time tasks (computers, stop watches &video/audio) • Primi
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