- Uses scientific methods to understand and explain how the thought,feelingandbehaviour
ofindividualsare influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
[crosses species with not just humans, primates].
ABCs of Social Psychology
- emotions, feelings and mood
- verbal and nonverbal action
- thought, sensation, perception, processing and memory
Compares the average difference between two groups
• e.g., is the average GPA of 4th-year UTSC students higher than the average
GPA of 1st-year UTSC students?
How to interpret the results
• A t-test gives you two things: a t-statistic that is a standardized value of the difference
between the group averages, and a probability value (abbreviated as a “p-value”)
• The p-value of a t-test tells you how likely it is that the difference between two groups
(i.e., the t-statistic) occurred by random chance
Compares the concomitant relationship between two variables
• e.g., does the amount of sleep a UTSC student gets predict their cGPA?
How to interpret results
A correlational analysis gives you two things: a correlation coefﬁcient (abbreviated with
the italicized, lowercase letter, r), and a probability value (abbreviated: “p-value”)
➡- The size of the correlation coefﬁcient, r, reﬂects the “practical signiﬁcance” of the
➡ There is no relationship if |r|< .1, a “small” relationship if .1 ≤ |r|< .3, “medium”
relationship if 0.3 ≤|r|< 0.5, and a “large relationship” if 0.5 ≤ |r|
➡ If you square the correlation coefﬁcient (i.e., r2), then the resulting number is the
proportion of changes in each variable that are accounted for by the other variable
➡ The p-value of a correlation test tells you the probability that you would observe a
relationship of this size in your data if no relationship exists
HowDoIChooseBetweenaT-testorCorrelation? Lecture 1
• It depends on your research question!
• Easy ways to ﬁgure it out:
• What kind of variables did you identify for your research question?
• If both are non-categorical (i.e., “continuous”) ➝Correlation
• If one is categorical➝t-test, with the categorical variable as the independent variable
What do you want to know about the world?
- Whether groups of people DIFFER from one another?➝Ttest
- Whether two things co-occur among people? ➝Correlation
•Social Facilitation: Performance affected by presence of others (typically, presence of
others enhances performances)
Research interests were in Perception and cognition, and created “Dyadic
Interactionism” - all we know about another person is their behaviour but we don’t know
about anything about anyone else, other than their behaviour
• Government interest in Social Psychology, studied were linked to Persuasion and
• Key Social Psychologists funded to study effective War Bond Ads
- social psychology was an actual discipline, questions such as “How did Nazi Germany
happen?” (understand more of the processes and ability to avoid future wars)
• Stanley Milgram’s “Obedience to Authority” Cultural Events (follow orders, even when
harming someone, but when their is a leader/order...)
•At least 39 witnesses, murdered burtally, and toke 45 mins attacker stabbed her
and shes screaming, attacker leaves and returns to attack and she died.
• No one intervened or even called the police, when police came to canvas, witnesses
said they saw it but they did not understand why no one intervened
• Darley’s & Latané’s “Bystander Apathy” research Cultural Events
907 people poisoned themselves (or were poisoned by their parents)
• Self-report/surveys (pencil & paper, computer survey, interviews) Lecture 1
• Reaction time tasks (computers, stop watches &video/audio)