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Midterm Review Sheet.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Midterm Review Sheet Overview & Methods of Social Psychology  Definition of Social Psychology The scientific study of how individuals feel, think and behave in a social context  ABCs of Social Psychology 1. Affect – thoughts, feelings and mood 2. Behavior –Verbal and nonverbal action 3. Cognition – perception, sensation, thought, processing and memory  History of Social Psychology Interactionist Perspective – an emphasis on how both an individual’s personality and environmental characteristics influence behavior  Hypothetico-deductive Scientific Method/Experimental Method Hypothesis – a testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur. Theory - an organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena Dependent Variable – a factor that experimenters measure to see if it is affected by the independent variable Independent Variable – a factor that experimenters manipulate to see if it affects the dependent variable  Methods of Social Psych Basic Research – research designed to increase the understanding of human behavior, often by testing hypotheses based on theories Applied Research – Research designed to enlarge the understanding of naturally occurring events and to find solutions to practical problems Operational Definition – the specific procedures for manipulating or measuring a conceptual variable Construct Validity – the extent to which the measures used in a study measure the variables they were designed to measure and the manipulations in an experiment manipulate the variables they were designed to manipulate Qualitative Research – the collection of data through open-ended responses, observation and interviews Quantitative Research – the collection of numerical data through objective testing and statistical analysis  Research Designs Correlational Designs – research designed to measure the association between variables that are not manipulated by the researcher. Correlational approaches measure the relationship between different variables. o Correlation Coefficient – a statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association between two variables. Ranges from -1.0 to +1.0. Correlations obtained at a single point in time across a number of people are called concurrent. Correlations can also be obtained at different times from the same people which are called prospective. o Correlation is NOT causation; it cannot demonstrate a cause-effect relationship Quasi-Experimental Design – a defined IV and DV, no experimental manipulation. The IV is a known group (eg. Sex, ethnicity, nationality), comparison/control group, stratified random sampling o Subject Variable – a variable that characterizes pre-existing differences among the participants in the study  Experimental Designs – a form of research that can demonstrate causal relationships because the experimenter has control over the events that occur and participants are randomly assigned to conditions  Meta-Analysis – a set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combing the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects  Random Assignment – a method of assigning participants to the various conditions of an experiment so that each participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being in any of the conditions  Internal Validity – the degree to which there can be reasonable certainty that the independent variables in an experiment caused the effects obtained on the dependent variables  External Validity – the degree to which there can be reasonable confidence that the results of a study would be obtained for other people and in other situations  Mundane Realism – the degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world  Deception – in the context of research, a method that provides false information to the participants  Confederate – accomplice of an experimenter who, in dealing with the real participants in an experiment, acts as if he or she is also a participant  Informed Consent – an individual’s deliberate voluntary decision to participate in research, based on the researcher’s description of what will be required during such participation  Statistical Analyses – allow the researcher to determine how likely it is that the results could have occurred by chance  Statistical Significance – the standard convention that if the results could have occurred by chance five or fewer times in 100 possible outcomes  T-Test – compares the average difference between two groups. Your one variable has to be a category that has only TWO values. It gives you a t-statistic that gives you the standardized value of the difference between the two averages. It also gives you a p-value that tells you how likely it is that the difference between the two groups occurred by random chance Social Cognition  Social Cognition – the study of how people perceive, remember and interpret information about themselves and others  Social Objects – a physical object that has the ability to engage in social cognition  Automatic Cognition – things that happen automatically  Controlled Cognition – controlled, reasonable thinking  Perception – becoming aware of something through the senses Pre-Attentive Processes – rapid processing of complex scene, a lot of things going on in our visual world but something in the environment or scene that pops out at you or catches your eye Gaze Detection – when people focus on the face that is looking right at them. Animals engage in this as well and if someone looks at you, you should look right back. We detect this immediately  Processing/Encoding Encoding – selecting information from the environment and storing it in memory Attention – selective perception, key way to understand informal social hierarchies o Selective Attention - the capacity for or process of reacting to certain stimuli selectively when several occur simultaneously Schemas – mental structures used to organize knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects/set of expectations you bring into a social environment o Self-Fulfilling Prophecy – our expectations shape our perceptions and behavior and that can propagate itself across a social network (eg. “beautiful is good stereotype”, women’s behavior was different based on what their partner believed about them).  Storage & Knowledge Retrieval Prototype Theory of Categorization – objects are classified on a similarity to a prototype (Eleanor Rosch) o Semantic Network – related concepts are stored closely together in memory o Spreading Activation – thinking about one concept will “activate”, “prime” or make “accessible” a related concept AND inhibit unrelated concepts  Retrieval o Accessibility – the extent to which concepts are at the forefront of your mind, they shape social cognition Thought Suppression – Thought suppression is the process of deliberately trying to stop thinking about certain thoughts. Suppressed thoughts become hyper accessible. o Priming – the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of another concept  Algorithms – Mechanical, step-by-step process for arriving at an answer, slow and deliberate, serial processing, effortful, highly successful.  Heuristics – mental shortcuts/fast and efficient/error prone o Availability Heuristic – a mental shortcut whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind, it stems from the way our knowledge is organized o Representativeness Heuristic – A mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case Base Rate Bias – the tendency to underestimate the impact of base rates on accurate prediction o Anchoring – the mental shortcut whereby people make judgments using the first answer that came to them as an “anchor” o Adjustment – the bias whereby even when people learn their anchor is untrustworthy, they do not adjust sufficiently away from it o Simulation Heuristic – a mental shortcut whereby people overestimate the probability of an event if they can imagine or “simulate” it in their minds Counterfactual Thinking – when you are thinking about something that has already happened and keep thinking if it had happened differently. The more you simulate your alternative, the more you obsess over it. The Self  The Self - An individual’s consciousness of one’s own identity (feelings, observations and thoughts)  Self-Awareness-awareness of self as entity distinct from others and environment o Mark Test-when you get a child acquainted with a mirror and while they aren’t paying attention/sleeping, you apply a cream mark on their face where they can’t see it so when they engage with the mirror they realize that this person in the mirror is themselves. At 1 ½ years old, babies touch the mirror as being a distinct object o Self-awareness theory – the theory that self-focused attention leads people to notice self-discrepancies, thereby motivating either an escape from self- awareness or a change in behavior o Private Self-consciousness – a personality characteristic of individuals who are introspective, often attending to their own inner states o Public Self-Consciousness – a personality characteristic of individuals who focus on themselves as social objects, as seen by others  Levels of the Self o Minimal Self – conscious experience of the self as distinct from the environment o Objectified Self – cognitive capacity to serve as the object of one’s own attention o Narrative/Symbolic Self – ability to form an abstract mental representation of oneself through language  Self-Perception Theory – the theory that when internal cues are difficult to interpret, people gain self-insight by observing their own behavior o Over justification Effect – the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors  Self-Concept – your concept of who you are, everything you know about yourself. Includes qualities, identities, roles, etc.  Self-Schema – cognitive representation of the self-concept. The concepts/words in your semantic network that is associated with your sense of Self. Guides processing of self- related information o Twenty Statements Test – twenty statements that start off with “I am __”. Researchers categorize the traits you list and identifies individual traits and social values o Implicit Measurement of Self-Concept – a reaction time measure where all traits you associate with yourself should become more accessible in mind when you prime the concept of yourself versus traits that are different become inhibited in terms of accessibility to those constructs.  Self-Complexity – the depth and complexity of your self-concept. Operationalized as the number of distinct aspects used to define the self-concept.  Global Self-Concept – I am…  Contextualized Self-Concept – I am____ when ____. Buffers negative feelings after failure especially in a domain that is highly self-relevant  Working Self-Concept – a subset of your self-concept that is presently accessible and primed. Recently primed aspects of Self (my student self-concept is primed right now as it would be different if I was with my friends on a Saturday night) Drawing term “working” from “working memory”.  Self-Concept Centrality – some aspects of self-concept are more personally important to you than others. Certain traits are more or less central to who you are therefore “central” aspects are chronically accessible in the semantic network o Measuring Self-Concept Centrality – Bulls-eye task. Give people a piece of paper that says “me” in the middle of the paper, similar to 20 statements test, fill in different traits that describe you and the ones more central to you are closer to the middle of the circle. Measure it quantitatively with a ruler and say which one is more central to your self-concept o Self-Evaluative Maintenance – how do we maintain a positive evaluation of ourselves? If someone out performs you in a particular domain, you will be threatened if the domain is central to your self-concept versus if it isn’t central to your self-concept then you will be proud.  Self-Handicapping – strategy to buffer the self from an anticipated failure or embarrassment by undermining one’s own performance  Self-Verification – the need to seek confirmation of one’s self-concept. Motivated by the desire to be understood, holds true even if self-concept is negative but only for traits that are central to the self-concept  Multiple Selves o Independent Selves – view of self as distinct from others o Interdependent Selves – self as inherently linked with others, includes other people in one’s view of self o Possible Selves – type of self-knowledge that pertains to how we think about our potential and our future o Self-Discrepancy Theory – our self-esteem is defined by the match or mismatch between how we see ourselves and how we want to see ourselves  Self-Esteem – self evaluative component of the self-concept o Global Self-Esteem – typical level of self-esteem o State Self-Esteem – self-esteem that fluctuates based on situational context o Implicit Self-Esteem – how closely you associate yourself with the concept of “good”. It is “implicit” because it refers to the concepts you associated with the Self in your semantic network o Sociometer Theory – the need to belong is evolutionarily adaptive and self- esteem monitors the likelihood of social exclusion  Perceived Regard – how we believe we are viewed by others, we tend to underestimate how positively close others like us  Self-Serving Biases – when people succeed or do well, they take credit for their work and bask in glory while those who do poorly they blame it on others, or to chance. o Positive Illusions – a set of common overly favourable and unrealistic beliefs about the self Self-Enhancement – tendency to see oneself as better-than-average on favourable characteristics Illusion of Control – overestimation of the degree to which we can control events and outcomes Unrealistic Optimism – Overestimation of the likelihood that positive events will happen to us. To a lesser degree, the underestimation of how likely it is that negative events will happen to us o Basking in Reflected Glory (BIRG) – to increase self-esteem by associating with others who are successful o Upward Social Comparison – comparison of the self to someone who is better off than oneself o Downward Social Comparison – the comparison of the self to someone who is worse off than oneself  Neural Underpinnings of Self o Self-Referential Information Processing – Jason Mitchell shown that when we are making a self-relevant comparison (eg. Comparing Obama to yourself) you see a lot of activity in your medial prefrontal cortex. How much like you is Obama? o Self-Recognition – (right prefrontal lobe) the ability to recognize oneself  Self-Monitoring – the tendency to change behavior in response to the self-presentation concerns of the situation Self-Regulation  Self-Regulation – the strategies used to control (regulate) your behavior. Pursuit of a long-term goal and monitors your response to environmental stimuli  Delay of Gratification – the ability to forgo an immediate reward for a larger, future reward o Bing Study Methods – start with a bunch of kids and put them in front of something that they like a lot (people are different in terms of their preferences). Kid enters room, they see 3 marshmallow, they are told they have to sit in front of them for 30 minutes and if they can NOT eat them in 30 minutes then they get 4 marshmallows. o Long term outcomes on the ability of delay – higher verbal and math SAT scores, parents rated the children as better able to concentrate, better able to cope with stress and frustration and teachers and parents rated the children as having greater cognitive and social competence ratings  Self-Regulatory Strategies o Self-Distancing – make a person less immersed in an environment and helps them deal with past negative (and positive) emotional experiences Self-Immersed Perspective – recall the event in the first-person (from the perspective of your own eyes) Self-Distanced Perspective – recall event in the third-person (from the perspective of an observer) o Emotion Regulation – self-regulation specific to the control of emotional experience Reappraisal – changing how you think about something. Take the stimulus that makes you feel emotional and think about it in different ways and may choose to go in another direction with your feelings. You feel angry and so you need to do something, but in order to deal with that, you think maybe you’re angry because someone insulted you, now that you think about it the person has a sick parent or stressed so I will no longer be angry Suppression – when you try to push your emotions down. When you inhibit your emotions. Situation Selection – used left often, its use increases over time. Controlling your emotions by avoiding situations that you think will make you feel bad and entering situations that you think will make you feel good Response versus antecedent focused strategies – Suppression is always response focused, you feel the emotion and then you don’t want to feel the emotion to it’s a response. Reappraisal can also be response focused too, you feel angry but then the person you were mad at is dealing with a lot of other things and you decide not to be angry anymore. Antecedent - Prepare yourself for the emotional situation with your reappraisal strategy, this would be where you would anticipate that you will feel stress during an exam, reappraisal strategy already in place and coming up with a way to think about it differently. Cognitive Cost of Emotion Regulation – they spent their cognitive resources by trying to suppress their emotions. o Scope of Self-Regulatory Costs – self-regulation in one domain affects ability to exert control on subsequent tasks in another domain  Theories of Self-Regulation o Resource Model – self-control is like a muscle, the idea being it can tire out within a situation (ego depletion). Just like muscles, over time, if you keep practicing self-control, it makes you better at self-control overall, over time therefore long-term willpower. o Process Model – proposed why do we see this depletion in self-control from one moment to the next? Occurs in shifts of both motivation and attention that are the result of exerting self-control on the first task, increased motivation to act on impulses. As a result of first self-control experience, you pay less attention to cues that trigger self-control like looking at a skinny person and seeing that you need self-control in order to be that way. Perceiving and Predicting Others  Types of Social Information o Behavior Nonverbal Behavior i. Emblems – gestures that have well understood meaning within a culture ii. Thin Slices – an approach within social psychology focused on the attributional power of brief exposure to others Behavioral Correlates of SES – naïve observers accurately detected parents’ income, mothers’ education and subjective SES. Relative to high SES participants, low SES participants spent less time grooming, doodling, manipulating objects. The higher you are in SES (social power), the less you pay attention to your interaction partner and the people around you. Categorization of Ambiguous Groups – an ambiguous group is a social group to which someone may or may not belong but not exactly a social group. Most research is on straight/gay lesbian individuals. Can we look at someone’s face and accurately detect if they are gay? He found that the population accuracy for ambiguous groups is 64%. When people do this they are significantly above chance. Context – context of crying changes from something being sad to something being exciting (she won a gold medal). It can change an attribution as a whole and provides additional input Schemas – what you expect is what you get.  Attribution – explanation for an observed behavior of a social object o Automaticity of Attributions Mind Perception – the process by which people attribute humanlike mental states to various animate and inanimate objects, including other people. o Attribution Theory – a group of theories that describe how people explain the causes of behavior Internal Attribution - Attributing a person’s behavior to something intrinsic to that person (personality, disposition, attitude or character) External Attributions – attributing a person’s behavior to something about the situation in which the behavior occurred (not changing beliefs regarding person’s character or personality) Situational Attributions – attribution to factors external to an actor, such as the task, other people, or luck Correspondence Bias – tendency to infer that a person’s behavior corresponds to their disposition, personality or attitude Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) – the tendency to focus on the role of personal causes and underestimate the impact of situations on other people’s behavior. This error is sometimes called correspondence bias Cultural Variability in FAE – other studies have revealed that people form habits of thought, learning to make attributions according to culturally formed beliefs about the causes of human behavior Explanations for FAE 1) Perceptual Salience – tendency to overestimate the causal role of information that grabs our attention 2) Two-Step Process of Attribution – FAE occurs through the same process as anchoring and adjustment heuristic, 1) Make an internal attribution and 2) attempt to adjust away from internal attribution by considering situational constraints o Covariation Theory – a principle of attribution theory holding that people attribute behavior to factors that are present when a behavior occurs and absent when it is not Consensus – do other people behave in this way? Behavior unique to person. Distinctiveness – does this person behave like this with other stimuli? Behavior unique to the situation Consistency – does the person behave like this over time? Behavior unique to this moment in time.  Self-Serving Biases o Self-Serving Attributions – if there is a positive outcome for the self = explain it in terms of internal factors whereas if there is a negative outcome for the self = explain it in terms of external factors o Defensive Attributions Unrealistic Optimism – tendency to expect bad things are less likely to happen to you than other people, and good things are more likely to happen to you than to other people Just World Hypothesis – the belief that individuals get what they deserve in life, an orientation that leads people to disparage victims. Ultimately, good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people. It gives us a sense of control over the world and leads to rejection and blaming of victims o False Consensus Effect – the tendency for people to overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions , attributes and behaviors o Ultimate Attribution Error – tendency to make internal attributions about an entire social group’s disposition based on the behavior of one group member (only applies to social out-groups)  Information Integration Theory – the theory that impressions are based on perceiver dispositions and a weighted average of a target person’s behavior  Prediction - we are not good at predicting when people are lying o First Impressions Belief Perseverance – the tendency to maintain beliefs even after they have been discredited o Implicit Personality Theories – a network of assumptions people make about the relationships among traits and behaviors o Distinguishing Truth from Deception Social Inte
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