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Elizabeth Page- Gould

DEFINITIONS FOR PSYB10 MIDTERM EXAM CHAPTER 1 – WHAT IS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY? Social psychology: the scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in a social context Interactionist perspective: an emphasis on how both an individual’s personality and environmental characteristics influence behaviour Social cognition: the study of how people perceive, remember, and interpret information about themselves and others Social neuroscience: the study of the relationship between neural and social processes Behavioural genetics: a subfield of the relationship that examines the role of genetic factors in behaviour Evolutionary psychology: a subfield of psychology that uses the principles of evolution to understand human social behaviour Culture: a system of enduring meanings, beliefs, values, assumptions, institutions, and practices shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Cross-cultural research: research designed to compare and contrast people of different cultures Multicultural research: research designed to examine racial and ethnic groups within cultures CHAPTER 2 – DOIN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH Hypothesis: a testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur Theory: an organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena Operational definition: the specific procedures for manipulating or measuring a conceptual variable Construct validity: the extent to which the measures used in a study measure the variable they were designed to measure and the manipulations in an experiment manipulate the variables they were designed to manipulate Interrater reliability: the degree to which different observers agree on their observations Qualitative research: the collection of data through open-ended responses, observation, and interviews Quantitative research: the collection of numerical data through objective testing and statistical analysis Random sampling: a method of selecting participants for a study so that everyone in a population has an equal chance of being in the study Correlational research: research designed to measure the association between variables that are not manipulated by the researcher 1 Correlation coefficient: a statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association between two variables Experiment: a form of research that can demonstrate causal relationships because the experimenter has control over the events that occur and participants are randomly assigned to conditions Random assignment: a method of assigning participants to the various conditions of an experiment so that each participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being in any of the conditions Independent variable: in an experiment, a factor that experimenters manipulate to see if it affects the dependent variable Dependent variable: in an experiment, a factor that experimenters measure to see if it is affected by the independent variable Subject variable: a variable that characterizes the pre-existing differences among the participants in a study Internal validity: the degree to which there can be reasonable certainty that the independent variables in an experiment caused the effects obtained on the dependent variables Experimenter expectancy effects: the effects produced when an experimenter’s expectations about the results of an experiment affect his or her behaviour toward a participant and thereby influence the participant’s responses External validity: the degree to which there can be reasonable confidence that the results of a study would be obtained for other people and in other situations Mondane realism: the degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world Experimental realism: the degree to which experimental procedures are involving to participants and lead them to behave naturally and spontaneously Deception: in the context of research, a method that provides false information to participants Confederate: accomplice of an experimenter who, in dealing with the real participants in an experiment, acts as if he/she is also a participant Meta-analysis: a set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects Informed consent: an individual’s deliberate, voluntary decision to participate in research, based on the researcher’s description of what will be required during such participation Debriefing: a disclosure, made to participants after research procedures are completed, in which the researcher explains the purpose of the research, attempts to resolve and negative feelings, and emphasizes the scientific contribution made by the participants’ involvement CHAPTER 3 – THE SOCIAL SELF 2 Self-concept: the sum total of an individual’s beliefs about his/her own personal attributes Self-schema: a belief people hold about themselves that guides the processing of self-relevant information Affective forecasting: the process of predicting how one would feel in response to future emotional events Self-perception theory: the theory that when internal cues are difficult to interpret, people gai self- insight by observing their own behaviour Facial feedback hypothesis: the hypothesis that changes in facial expression can lead to corresponding changes in emotion Overjustification effect: the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors Social comparison theory: the theory that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others Two-factor theory of emotion: the theory that the experience of emotion is based on two factors: physiological arousal and a cognitive interpretation of that arousal Dialecticism: an Eastern system of thought that accepts the existence of contradictory characteristics within a single person Self-esteem: an affective component of the self, consisting of a person’s positive and negative self- evaluations Self-awareness theory: the theory that self-focused attention leads people to notice self-discrepancies, thereby motivating either an escape from self-awareness or a change in behaviour Private self-consciousness: a personality characteristic of individuals who are introspective, often attending to their own inner states Public self-consciousness: a personality characteristic of individuals who focus on themselves as social objects, as seen by others Implicit egotism: a nonconscious form of self-enhancement Self-handicapping: behaviours designed to sabotage one’s own performance in order to provide a subsequent excuse for failure Bask in reflected glory (BIRG): to increase self-esteem by associating with others who are successful Downward social comparison: the defensive tendency to compare ourselves with others who are worse off than we are Self-presentation: strategies people use to shape what others think of them Self-monitoring: the tendency to change behaviour in response to the self-presentation concerns of the situation 3 CHAPTER 4 – PERCEIVING PERSONS Social perception: a general term for the processes by which people come to understand one another Mind perception: the process by which people attribute humanlike mental states to various animate and inanimate objects, including other people Nonverbal behaviour: behaviour that reveals a person’s feelings without words—through facial expressions, body language, and vocal cues Attribution theory: a group of theories that describe how people explain the causes of behaviour Personal attribution: attribution to internal characteristics of an actor, such as ability, personality, mood, or effort Situational attribution: attribution to factors external to an actor, such as the task, other people, or luck Covariation principle: a principle of attribution theory holding that people attribute behaviour to factors that are present when a behaviour occurs and absent when it does not Availability heuristic: the tendency to estimate the likelihood that an event will occur by how easily instances of it come to mind False-consensus effect: the tendency for people to overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions, attributes, and behaviours Base-rate fallacy: the finding that people are relatively insensitive to consensus information presented in the form of numerical base rates Counterfactual thinking: the tendency to imagine alternative events or outcomes that might have occurred but did not Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to focus on the role of personal causes and underestimate the impact of situations on other people’s behaviour. This error is sometimes called correspondence bias Actor-observer effect: the tendency to attribute our own behaviour to situational causes and the behaviour of others to personal factors Belief in a just world: the belief that individuals get what they deserve in life, an orientation that leads people to disparage victims Impression formation: the process of integrating information about a person to form a coherent impression Information integration theory: the
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