PSYB10 Final Exam Review Terms

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Group Processes  Social groups;  Groups have social norms to guide behavior  Groups have well-defined social roles  Vary in level of group cohesiveness  Social norms: A group’s prescriptions for the behaviour, values, and beliefs of its members.  Social roles: A group’s expectations for the behaviour and responsibilities of various subgroups of its members.  The Stanford Prison Experiment  Group cohesiveness: The degree to which a group IS or IS PERCEIVED TO BE close knit and similar. In the minds of group members:  Cohesiveness promotes liking and ingroup favouritism. In the minds of outsiders:  Cohesiveness increases stereotyping of group members.  Destructive groups (Cults) - centered around devotion to a person/idea/thing that employs unethical techniques of manipulation or control.  Defining characteristics of destructive cults 1. Charismatic leader(s) 2. Leaders are self-appointed 3. The leader is the focus of veneration 4. Group culture tends toward totalitarianism 5. Group usually has 2 or more sets of ethics 6. Group presents itself as innovative and exclusive 7. Main goals: Recruitment & fundraising  Deindividuation: The state in which a person loses the sense of him or herself as an individual.  Social facilitation and social loafing:  Effects of groups on individual performance  Created by an interaction of three factors:  Individual Evaluation  Arousal  Task complexity  Social facilitation: Tendency for performance to be: - improved when doing well-learned or dominant behaviours in the presence of others. - inhibited when doing less practised or difficult tasks in the presence of others.  Social loafing: Tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a group and not being individually evaluated.  Process of Social Facilitation or Social Loafing: Evaluation, Arousal, and Task Complexity;  Evaluation Apprehension → Concern about being judged/evaluated  Socio-evaluative Threat → Extreme Evaluation Apprehension  Body responds with the stress hormone, cortisol  Cortisol constricts blood vessels in hippocampus,  Inhibiting memory and learning  Distraction-conflict theory  Collective effort model  Group decision making -  Process loss: performance decreases because of obstacles that were created by group processes (ex. Poor coordination, low motivation).  Brainstorming: members speak freely without criticism to produce creative ideas.  Group polarization: Tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members.  Group think: A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in- group, when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.  Antecedents:  Highly cohesive  Isolation  Directive leader  High stress  Non-structured decision-making procedures  Symptoms:  Illusion of invulnerability  Group is morally correct  Out-group is stereotyped  Self-censorship  Pressure for conformity  Illusion of unanimity  Mindguards  Consequences:  Incomplete survey of alternatives  Failure to look at risks of favored alternatives  Poor information search  No contingency plans  Transactive memory: groups collectively encode, store, and retrieve knowledge . Emotions  What is an emotion? a brief physiological and psychological response to an event that is felt subjectively and prepares a person for action.  A more complex definition of emotion - “An emotion is a universal, functional reaction to an external stimulus event, temporarily integrating physiological, cognitive, phenomenological, and behavioural channels to facilitate a fitness-enhancing, environment-shaping response to a current situation.”  What is not an emotion? Due to their time-course, these things are NOT emotions:  Moods - E.g., being in a good or bad mood  Sentiments - E.g., wishing someone well  Affective personality traits - E.g., “he is a cheerful person.” or “She is an angry person.”  By itself, level of arousal - E.g., sleepiness Moods are a generalized affective state, but they do not have the following criteria for an emotion:  Stimulus-Response: a mood is not always a response to an evocative stimulus.  Time period: Moods persist over time (i.e., minutes, hours, days).  Action Tendencies: Moods may not call for an action.  Experience: Moods are mostly subjective; they are not observable physiologically.  6 basic emotions: 1. Fear 2. Anger 3. Disgust 4. Sadness 5. Happiness 6. Surprise  Complex emotions: blends of basic emotions.  Affect blends  Positive emotions: positively-valenced emotions (most complex)  Self-conscious emotions: complex emotions elicited by the self.  Measuring emotions: Self report (how someone says they feel), facial action muscles (see chart in lecture 7, slide 40), facial expressions, body posture.  Facial EMG:  Captures subtle facial movements.  Best used for situations where facial movement is not visually detectable.  Obtrusive measurement technique.  Facial Action Coding System:  Codes overt facial expressions.  Numbers all Facial muscle actions.  Classifies emotions as patterns of muscle.  Actions that occur together.  E.G., Anger: 4, 5, 7, 23  Time span of emotion: Emotions are short-lived (Ekman, 1984) - Real Emotions: between 500 ms - 4 s - Fake Emotions: between 1 - 10 s An emotion can appear to persist if the emotional stimulus is presented repeatedly. Not all emotions have the same duration: - Surprise is the briefest - Happiness, disgust, and sadness are standard length - Anger and fear last a little longer Physiological component: An emotion is a universal, functional reaction to an external stimulus event, temporarily integrating physiological, cognitive, phenomenological, and behavioural channels to facilitate a fitness-enhancing, environment-shaping response to a current situation.  Peripheral nervous system: Most researchers require a peripheral physiological response to state that an emotion has occured. - E.g., Heart rate, skin conductance, preejection period, finger temperature. Important caveat about inference: - Emotions cannot be identified by peripheral responses. - Indicate degree of arousal or insensity.  Central nervous system: What areas of the brain are involved in the processing of emotional stimuli? Limbic System - Amygdala: Fear and Anger - Hypothalamus: Laughter Frontal Cortex - Everything else  Proper inference of psychophysiology: Physiological profiles & locations help us understand arousal, intensity & possible circuits. Emotions cannot be identified by examining physiological states.  James-Lange Theory of Emotion: Every emotion has a distinct, specific pattern of physiological responses that characterizes and underlies it. Implications:  Implies that our psychological experience of emotion is the result of our underlying physiological responses.  Implies that every emotion has a physiological signature - a pattern or “profile” of physiological responses that uniquely identify it. Specific bodily (physio) response tells us what emotion we are feeling. Bodily response is specific. Perception of event Bodily expression Subjective experience  Directed facial action task: Pull eyebrows down and together. Raise your upper eyelid. Push your lower lip up and press your lips together. Results: participants were able to identify emotions from instructions.  Cognitive component: An emotion is a universal, functional reaction to an external stimulus event, temporarily integrating physiological, cognitive, phenomenological, and behavioural channels to facilitate a fitness-enhancing, environment-shaping response to a current situation.”  Cognitive appraisals: the meaning of an event affects our emotional response to it.  Two-Factor Theory of Emotion: 1. Physiological arousal is generalized, not specific. 2. We apply a label to the arousal based on cognitive appraisal. Schacter & Singer (1964) Method: 1. Give people Heart-rate Increasing Pill or Placebo. 2. Have them complete a survey with very personal questions. 3. An actor gets angry at the questionnaire. 4. What does the participant do? Results: Aroused participants expressed greater anger than the actor. Non-aroused participants didn’t get angry.  Two-factor theory of love/misattribution of arousal: Happens when the brain does not know why it feels a certain emotion so it relies on external stimuli. If you go on a thrill ride for example and you look at someone of the opposite sex, you could misattribute your arousal from the ride for them causing those feelings in your so you could fall in love with them.  Dutton & Aron Bridge Study - Psychologists Donald G. Dutton and Arthur P. Aron wanted to use a natural setting that would induce physiological arousal. In this experiment, they had male participants walk across two different styles of bridges. One bridge was a very scary (arousing) suspension bridge, which was very narrow and suspended above a deep ravine. The second bridge was much safer and more stable than the first. At the end of each bridge an attractive female experimenter met the participants. She gave the participants a survey to fill out and a number to call if they had any other further questions.  The idea of this study was to find which group of males were more likely to call the female experimenter. The results found that the men who walked across the scary bridge were most likely to call the woman, asking for a date. This was most likely due to the arousal they felt from walking across the scary bridge. They had misattributed their arousal from the bridge towards the woman, making her seem more attractive. Strangely, when asking the males why they called the woman they all had reasons for why they called her. Some said it was because of her attractive face, body, and eyes. Yet, none of the participants attributed their feelings to the bridge causing arousal, therefore causing the experimenter to become more attractive.  Behavioural component -  Facial display - 6 basic emotion. Anger, Fear, Disgust, Surprise, Happiness, Sadness.  Body posture  Vocal tone  Touch  Action: emotions have "action tendencies". Approach or avoid the emotional stimulus.  Action tendencies of emotions Anger - approach Fear - avid Disgust - avoid Happiness - approach  Universality of emotions: An emotion is a universal, functional reaction to an external stimulus event, temporarily integrating physiological, cognitive, phenomenological, and behavioural channels to facilitate a fitness-enhancing, environment-shaping response to a current situation.  Functionality of emotions - emotions are universal.  Adaptive value of emotions: emotions are used to solve problems of survival, reproduction, and raising young.  Expression of emotion: universally recognizable and producible, expressions seem to have evolved before language. Evidence of this is demonstrated by the fact that there is continuity between species in time and also universality within species.  Ekman studies on universality of emotion  Ekman & Friesen (1972): New Guinean Pre-literate Villagers  3 Methods: 1. Standard Method:  “Here’s a photo; what is the emotion? (6 options) 2. Dashiel Method:  Told a story, then “Which photo matches” (3 options) 3. Posed Method:  Told a Story, then “YOU Pose the emotion that the protagonist would be feeling.”  Photos shown to US undergrads, who rated them with the standard method.  Culturally-specific emotions: Some argue emotions as culturally constructed and specific. Examples:  Japanese amae - pleasant feeling of depending on someone else.  German schadenfreude- pleasure derived from the misfortune of others.  Bedouin hasham – pleasant feeling of humility. Morality  Moralization: the transformation of preferences to values.  Moral reasoning: how do you decide whether you think something is morally right or wrong?  Moral emotions: moral violations elicit specific emotions.  Feelings as information: emotions used as information when making judgments.  “Moral triad” of emotions:  Disgust - elicited by violations of divinity.  Anger - elicited by violations of autonomy.  Contempt - elicited by violations of community.  Social Intuitionist Model: Two steps of moral reasoning: 1. Make moral judgement based on emotional reaction 2. Try to come up with acceptable justification for that reaction.  Dual-process theory of moral reasoning: Two types of reasoning processes involved in the moment of the moral decision:  Emotional Process  Utilitarian Process  Neural structures involved in rational and emotional moral reasoning -  When there are strong arguments for both a utilitarian decision and an emotional decision, there is a conflict. As a result, people show heightened activity in the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) when making difficult, moral decisions  The people who choose the utilitarian argument have a greater activation in the Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex than in the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) while making moral decisions.  Role of physiological arousal in moral action -  Teper, Inzlicht, & Page-Gould (2011) Method: 1. Participants write a math task in which they could earn a performance bonus, under one of three experimental independent variables:  Control: Just writing the math task with no cover story.  Moral Action: Writing a math task, but believing that you had the opportunity to cheat on each math problem by revealing the answers.  Moral Forecasting: Going through the math task and predicting if you would cheat on each math problem. 2. The key dependent variables were:  Moral Behaviour: How many times participants cheated.  Physiological activity of sympathetic (i.e., stress) and (e.g., divided attention, social engagement) parasympathetic nervous systems during the study. Results:  Participants ended up cheating a lot more if they predicted that they would cheat so what they believed usually came true.  Physiological arousal partially explains the relationship between experimental condition and cheating behavior. If you feel the arousal you are less likely to cheat. Initial Attraction  Proximity -  Propinquity effect: The more we see and interact with other people, the more likely we are to become our friends.  Familiarity -  Mere-exposure: The more exposure you get to a neutral object, the more you will like it.  Research on Mere-Exposure - Moreland & Beach (1992)  Method: - Confederate sits in front row of class for 0 - 15 classes - At end of semester, students rate liking of confederate  Results: Liking by Exposure  Similarity Versus Complementarity:  Complementarity - “Opposites attract”  Baby seems we never ever agree / You like the movies / And I like T.V. / I take things serious / And you take 'em light / I go to bed early / And you party all night (Abdul, 1988)  Similarity - “Birds of a feather flock together”  Research supports the idea that similarity promotes liking.  Reciprocity & Attraction/Reciprocal Liking: We like people better who like us.  Subtle liking cues:  Eye contact  Leaning in  Attentive listening  Mimicry  Attractiveness - Study: Walster et al., (1966)  Method: 752 freshmen met up on blind-date Assigned to random pairs Who wanted to go on a date again?  Results: Partner’s who were physically attractive Independent of rater’s attractiveness No personality effects   What is attractive?  Attractiveness in men and women;  Men: large eyes, strong cheekbones, large chin, big smile  Women: large eyes, small nose, prominent cheekbones and narrow cheeks, high eyebrows, large pupils, big smile.  Why these features might be important? Evolution.  Symmetry: we are more attracted to symmetrical faces, probably because they look more familiar to us.  Averageness: an average face composed of several other faces is more attractive than the original faces because it looks more symmetrical to us.  Babyfacedness;  Features  Large eyes, rounder face and nose  Baby-faced people:  Are more persuasive  Perceived to be more trustworthy  Evoke liking and care giving behaviours  Cultural influence;  Attractiveness is relatively similar in all cultures.  Different personality traits are valued in different countries. Ex: US, Canada & Korea: sociable/likeable, friendly/popular, well-adjusted & mature, happy, intelligent, whereas in Korea, sensitivity, generosity, warmth, trustworthy/honest, and empathic traits are valued so physical traits are usually valued the same cross-culturally but personality ones change depending on culture.  Companionate love is valued in all cultures but passionate love is valued in most (144 of 167 cultures).  Attractiveness and liking/attraction:  We appear hard-wired to like attractive people  Babies stare at “attractive” faces for longer  Cross-cultural consistency in judgment of attractive faces  Beauty creates halo effect:  Occurs most for social competence  More sociable, extraverted, popular  More sexual, happy friendly  Beautifulness-is-good Stereotype: tendency to associate attractiveness with “goodness” .  Textbook example: in children’s fairy tales, Snow White and Cinderella are portrayed as beautiful and kind while the witch and stepsisters are said to be both ugly and cruel  Beauty stereotypes across cultures demonstrates that what is good is partly culturally defined:  Traits in us, Canada & Korea; sociable/likable, friendly/popular, well-adjusted & mature, happy, intelligent.  Traits only in us & Canada; strong, dominant, assertive.  Traits only in Korea; sensitive, generous, warm, trustworthy/honest, empathic.  Cultural shifts in attractiveness:  Researchers took body measurements from all Playboy centerfold and found that over time, models became thinner and had lower bust-to-waist ratios .  Caucasians show higher acceptance of plastic surgery and are more likely to consider having it done themselves than South Asians or African Caribbeans .  Heavier women are judged more attractive than slender women in places where food is frequently in short supply .  Attractiveness and relationships: : we tend to associate with others who are similar to ourselves .  Matching hypothesis: we seek partners that are of similar attractive to us and are more satisfied with these partners.  Evidence - couples of similar attractiveness were more likely to continue dating after a blind date.  UCLA Dating Study:  Recruited dating partners & took a picture of each .  Other students rated each partner’s attractiveness.  6 months later, researchers contacted dating partners to ask about their relationship .  RESULTS: Similarity in attractiveness predicted:  Satisfaction in relationship  Relationship longevity  Lower break-up rate at 6 month follow-up  Misattribution of Arousal: symptoms of arousal may be misattributed to passionate love if in the company of an attractive person.  Dutton & Aron Bridge study:  Tested this hypothesis in field study that took place on two bridges above the Capilano River in Vancouver.  Bridge 1 was a narrow, wobbly suspension bridge that swayed 70 meters above rocky rapids .  Bridge 2 was wide, study and only 3 meters from the ground .  A male participant walked across one of these bridges where he was met by an attractive young woman who introduced herself as a research assistant who asked him to fill out brief questionnaire and gave her phone number in case he wanted more info about the project.  RESULT: men who crossed the scary bridge were more likely to call her than those who crossed the stable bridge .  Scarcity & Attraction: if potential mates are not plentiful, we may shift our standards of attractiveness. “Closing time” studies  People in bars were asked to judge attractiveness of same-sex and opposite-sex targets with time until closing time used as independent variable .  RESULT: attractiveness rating of opposite-sex targets increased as evening progressed . Even when statistically controlling for alcohol intake. Close Relationships  Evolutionary perspectives on relationships: human beings all over the world exhibit mate-selection patterns that favor conception, birth and survival of their offspring .  Women must be highly selective because they are biologically limited in the number of children they can bear and raise .  Men can father an unlimited number of children and ensure their reproductive success by inseminating many women .  Evolutionary fitness: potential to pass on your genes/successfully procreate .  Ability to survive mating years.  Ability to maximize the number of offspring that survive to their mating years .  Polygamy: several members of one sex mating with one individual of the other sex.  Polygyny: multiple females mate with one male (90% of animals).  Polyandry: several males mate with one female .  Monogamy: reproductive partnership based on a more or less permanent tie between partners.  Sexes are close to indistinguishable based on physical characteristics  Reproductive investment: the “investment” time of resources and risk involved in having each child.  The sex which bears the most reproductive costs is “choosier”  Sexual “Choosiness”:  Choosy sex bears the most reproductive costs/investment.  Usually the female, but not always.  Sex with least reproductive costs should want more partners.  Will be in competition for mates more often.  Displays greater physical variation .  Sexual dimorphism: pronounced difference in the size or bodily structures of the two sexes (seen in polygamous animals) .  Biological basis of monogamy: Oxytocin & Dopamine:  Co-occurrence of oxytocin and dopamine in nucleus accumbens .  Dopamine = reward neurotransmitter.  Oxytocin = attachment hormone that is also neuropeptide .  In monogamous animals, oxytocin and dopamine receptors share nucleus accumbens .  Activation of one activates the other  All 5% of monogamous animals share this anatomical feature .  Polygamous animals do not have oxytocin receptors in nuclear accumbens .  Homosexuality: reproductive partnerships between members of the same sex.  Wide displayed across animal kingdom .  Usually associated with disproportionate number of male and female mating adults .  Polygamous and monogamous features of humans:  Polygamous features:  Sexual dismorphism .  Great physical variation.  85% of traditional cultures allow some kind of polygamy.  Monogamous features:  Co-occurrence of oxytocin and dopamine in human brain .  Great physical variation among both sexes .  98.9% of men and 99.2% of women report hoping to settle with 1 life partner .  Human Mate Selection:  Young adulthood: mating tends towards polygamy.  Mid-20s onward: mating tends towards monogamy .  Women should be attracted to men who are older and financially secure or who have ambition, intelligence and stability to support her offspring.  Men seek out women who are young and physically attractive because it signals health and reproductive fertility . - Also pursue chaste women to ensure that children produced are truly theirs .  Need to belong - Compared to those who are isolated from others, people with strong social networks are happier, healthier and report greater life satisfaction.  Motivation of belonging - belonging is a basic human motivation.  Evolutionary explanations -  Sociometer theory: proposes that state self-esteem is a measure of effectiveness in social relations and interactions that monitors acceptance and/or rejection from others .  If a person is deemed having relational value, they are more likely to have higher self- esteem .  Human survival tactics require several people.  E.g. building shelters, hunting game, agriculture .  Development of human children: human children are helpless for several years and need parental care .  Social isolation:  Long-term isolation is a form of official torture/punishment in every society .  Social ostracism/rejection is an unofficial way to enforce social rules in every society .  Effects observed in other primates as well .  Harlow’s Monkeys:  Rhesus monkeys were socially isolated for 3 months but still provided with regular food and contact comfort e.g. good room temperature .  RESULTS: dramatic behavioural disturbances after 3 months.  Huddling alone, rocking, self mutilation and incompetent (often abusive) parenting .  Introduced isolate monkeys to therapist monkey (non-isolated, same-age rhesus monkey) .  RESULTS: after 2 weeks, isolated monkeys played with therapist monkey and after 6 months, appeared mostly recovered.  Remained more easily stressed out that normal monkeys .  Attachment Theory: describes how infants become:  Emotionally attached to caregivers.  Emotionally distressed at loss of caregiver .  Functional purpose of attachment:  Comforts fearful child.  Builds expectations for future relationships.  Provides “secure base” for exploration .  Imprinting: more basic form of attachment bond which occurs shortly after birth/hatching among many species.  Must occur within “sensitive period”.  Animals show distress when imprinted object has been removed .  Infants enter world predisposed to seek direct contact primary caregiver .  Motivated by:  Infants find social interaction intrinsically rewarding.  Instinctive fear of the unknown/unfamiliar.  Adult Attachment: adult romantic relationships function like caregiver-child attachment relationships.  Prefer proximity, with distress upon separation.  Turn to partner for support when stressed, in danger.  Derive security from partner, enabling exploration of and engagement with the rest of the world .  Attachment styles: the way a person typically interacts with significant others.  Secure attachment style (56%)  Ex. “I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. I don’t often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting to close to me” .  Their experience with love:  Trust, friendship, positive emotions.  View of self/relationships:  Believe in enduring love.  Others are trustworthy.  Self is likeable .  Memories of caregivers  Dependably responsive and caring .  Anxious-ambivalent attachment style (19%)  Ex. “I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn’t really love me or won’t want to stay with me. I want to merge completely with another person and this desire sometimes scares people away.”  Their experience with love:  Preoccupying, almost painfully exciting, struggle with merge with someone else.  View of self/relationships:  Fall in love frequently, easily.  Have difficulty finding true love.  Have self doubts.  Memories of caregivers  Mixture of positive and negative experiences .  Avoidant attachment style (21%)  Ex. “I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, love partners want me to be more intimate that I feel comfortable being.”  Their experience of love;  Fear of closeness, lack of trust.  View of self/relationships:  Doubtful of existence or durability of romantic love.  Don’t need love partner in order to be happy.  Self as independent, self-reliant.  Memories of caregivers:  Cold and rejecting .  Fearful avoidant: fearful of intimacy, socially avoidant.  Dismissive avoidant: dismissing of intimacy, strongly independent.  Attachment dimensions: we think of attachment in terms of two continuous dimensions  Attachment avoidance  Attachment anxiety  Anxious ambivalent have high attachment anxiety but low attachment avoidance .  Secure attachment have low attachment anxiety and low attachment avoidance .  Avoidant have high avoidance and high anxiety.  Global versus specific attachment orientations -  Styles of attachment are somewhat stable over time but they are not permanent.  Research suggests that people may continuously review their attachment styles in response to their own relationship experiences .  Cognitive Component of Close Relationship -  Self-expansion theory: the experience of closeness is an associative overlap of our self-concept with our concept of a close other.  Information about close others are closely associated with self-related information  “Inclusion-of-Other-in-Self”  Implicit Personality Test  RESULTS: longer reaction times when making “me”/”not-me” judgments of spouse’s characteristics .  Make more situational attributions for self and close others but made more dispositional attributions for non-close others (i.e. Fundamental Attribution Error).  Interdependence Theory/Investment Model: a mental state characterized by pluralistic, collective representation of the self-in-relationship.  Social Exchange Theory; a perspective that views people as motivated to maximize benefits and minimize costs in their relationships with others - require 3 component f commitment.  Commitment (3 components) 1. Satisfaction: product of perceived rewards, costs and comparison level .  Reward cost/ratio: relationships that provide more rewards and fewer costs will be more satisfying and endure longer. .  Comparison level: people bring certain expectations about a relationship .  Person with high comparison level expect his/her relationship to be rewarding .  Person with low comparison level does not . 2. Quality of alternatives: refers to people’s expectation about what they would receive in an alternative situation.  If rewards available elsewhere are believed to be high, a person will be less committed to staying in the present relationship .  If people perceive few acceptable alternatives, they will tend to remain, even in an unsatisfying relationship that fails to meet expectations . 3. Investment: something a person puts into relationship that he or she cannot recover if the relationship ends .  Ex. sacrificed romantic and career opportunities.  Rusbult Study;  Measure satisfaction, quality of alternatives and resources in dating couples at Time 1.  Contacted them 7 months later to ask about their commitment to their relationship .  RESULTS: Couples that had high satisfaction and resource investment but low quality of alternatives reported higher commitment .  Percentage of people that had broken up 7 months later flipped this pattern: these were couples that lower satisfaction and resource investment but higher quality of alternatives .  Affective Component of Close Relationships -  Theories of Love;  Companionate Love: feelings of intimacy and affection we feel when we care deeply for a person but without sexual arousal or passion.  Can exist between lovers or friends  Valued in all cultures  Passionate Love: feelings of intense longing for a person, usually accompanied by physiological arousal.  Valued in 144 of 167 cultures  Positive Illusions in Close Relationships: idealization of close others; seeing them as more positive than they see themselves.  Over the course of 1 year, couples who maintained positive illusions of their partner had:  Decreasing instances of conflict  Increasing satisfaction  Decreasing doubts about relationship  More likely to be together at the end of the year  Behavioural Component in Close Relationships -  Co-operative dilemmas:  What to do when one partner behaves destructively?  Accommodate and focus on long-term relationship goals instead of short-term, self-serving goals (occurs when both partners are destructive).  Relationship Dissolution  What couples do well;  Married after age 20, similar age  Grew up in 2-parent homes  Dated for a long time, but did not live together  Same level of education, especially if high  Good income  Religious, and of same religious affiliation  Sense of equity  Sex often, arguments rarely  Novel experiences;  Sharing new experiences together  Exploration of environment with partner as “secure base”  Why relationships fail  Low Equity in Relationship  Lack of Positive Illusions (particularly negative illusions)  Low interdependence  Boredom - Lack of exploration/novel activities  Top Causes of Conflict:  Sex  Money  Kids:  Marital satisfaction dives with first child  Slowly returns to pre-child levels by empty nest  Boost in marital satisfaction when both kids leave the house  Gottman (1994): “4 Horsemen of the Apocalypse” in 15-minute conflict conversations 1. Criticism (e.g., listing personal flaws, attacking) 2. Defensiveness (e.g., denying, excusing, or counter-criticizing) 3. Contempt (e.g., rolling eyes, sarcasm, insulting) 4. Stonewalling (e.g., non-response to communicative attempts)  How relationships fail  Friendships  People typically use “passive strategies” to end the relationship.  Avoidance or withdrawal  Romantic Relationships  People typically use “direct strategies” to end the relationship.  Direct confrontation.  Rejection -  Neurochemical Basis Of Rejection:  fMRI scans show cortical activity in ACC and rvPFC during social rejection.  Relationship Between Social Pain And Physical Pain;  Neurochemical Basis Of Social Rejection:  Neurological Experience of Physical Pain:  Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC)  Associated with “distress signal” during physical pain  Right Ventral Prefrontal Cortex (rvPFC)  Associated with regulation and inhibition of felt pain  If social pain is physically painful …  Interrupting the experience of pain should dull the hurt of rejection.  DeWall, MacDonald, et al. (2008) Method: 1. Randomly assign participants to take Tylenol or Placebo twice daily for 21 days. 2. Report on social experiences each day, particularly related to social rejection or social exclusion. Results: Tylenol participants reported less physical pain. Tylenol participants reported less hurt feelings on days when they experienced social rejection or exclusion than placebo. Culture  Culture: An ever-changing1, constructive2 stimulus which shapes3 the way individuals perceive and contribute to the world. 1. Dynamic 2. Influenced by members of the culture 3. Influences members of the culture  Nationality: the country you were born in.  Ethnicity: your cultural heritage.  Identification: the degree to which you include group membership in your self-conc
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