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University of Toronto Scarborough
E- Page Gould

PSYB10Exam Notes Lecture 6Group ProcessesTypes of groups o Non social a group of people standing in a line to get tickets for movies no relation to one another o Social when the movie is sold out and everyone starts talking to each otherThe interaction between them makes it socialSocial groups have social norms to guide behaviour o They have well defined social roles and vary in level of group cohesiveness o Social norms a groups prescription for the behaviour valaues and beliefs of its membersGroup members are expected to conform to these normsMembers who deviate from norms are punished or rejectedEx when a guy comes naked to class it is not normal hes deviating from the norm and was tried to be expelled but could for not just for not wearing clothes but they went through a lot of processes to get him to wear clothes o Social Roles a group of expectations for the behaviour and responsibilities of various subgroups of its membersPotential costs individual personality may be taken over by power of roleViolation of social roles meets with censure from other group membersWhen people violate these social roles they get punished and may get excluded so people get over their individualism a bit not much of individuality o Group Cohesiveness the degree of which a group is or is perceived to be close knit and similarin the minds of group members cohesiveness promotes liking and ingroup favourismin the minds of others cohesiveness increases stereotyping of group membersif a group is so close then they meet someone that is new that is also part of the group then they will be really close with themHow do groups affect us o Social facilitation and social loafingHow you would perform when youre alone versus when youre with othersEffects of groups on individual performanceCreated by an interaction of three factors Individual evaluationArousal sweating and heart rate increase Task complexity how easy or complex an assignment should beSocial Facilitation tendency for performance to beimproved when doing welllearned or dominant behaviours in the presence of others o good at task then do better when people are aroundinhibited when doing less practiced or difficult tasks in the presence of othero opposite when you are not so good at taskSocial Loafing tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a group and not being individually evaluatedTendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a group and not being individually evaluatedEvaluationEvaluation apprehension concern about being judged or evaluatedSocioevaluate threat extreme evaluation apprehension o Body responds with the stress hormonecortisolconstrictes blood vessels in hippocampus inhibiting memory and learningo Group Decision MakingGroup Polarization we link when leader asks for our opinionTendency for groups to make decision that are more extreme than initial inclinations of their members
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