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PSYB10 – Exam Notes Lecture 6 – Group Processes - Types of groups: o Non social: a group of people standing in a line to get tickets for movies (no relation to one another) o Social: when the movie is sold out, and everyone starts talking to each other  The interaction between them makes it social - Social groups have social norms to guide behaviour o They have well defined social roles and vary in level of group cohesiveness o Social norms: a groups prescription for the behaviour, values, and beliefs of its members  Group members are expected to conform to these norms  Members who deviate from norms are punished or rejected  Ex: when a guy comes naked to class, it is not normal, he's deviating from the norm, and was tried to be expelled but could for not just for not wearing clothes, but they went through a lot of processes to get him to wear clothes o Social Roles: a group of expectations for the behaviour and responsibilities of various subgroups of its members  Potential costs: individual personality may be taken over by power of role  Violation of social roles meets with censure from other group members  When people violate these social roles, they get punished and may get excluded so people get over their individualism a bit, not much of individuality o Group Cohesiveness: the degree of which a group is or is perceived to be close knit and similar  in the minds of group members, cohesiveness promotes liking and ingroup favourism  in the minds of others cohesiveness increases stereotyping of group members  if a group is so close, then they meet someone that is new that is also part of the group, then they will be really close with them - How do groups affect us? o Social facilitation and social loafing  How you would perform when you’re alone versus when you’re with others  Effects of groups on individual performance  Created by an interaction of three factors:  Individual evaluation  Arousal (sweating, and heart rate increase)  Task complexity (how easy or complex an assignment should be)  Social Facilitation: tendency for performance to be  improved when doing well-learned or dominant behaviours in the presence of others o good at task then do better when people are around  inhibited when doing less practiced or difficult tasks in the presence of other o opposite when you are not so good at task  Social Loafing: tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a group and not being individually evaluated  Tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a group and not being individually evaluated  Evaluation  Evaluation apprehension: concern about being judged or evaluated  Socio-evaluate threat: extreme evaluation apprehension o Body responds with the stress hormone – cortisol – constricts blood vessels in hippocampus, inhibiting memory and learning o Group Decision Making  Group Polarization (we link when leader asks for our opinion)  Tendency for groups to make decision that are more extreme than initial inclinations of their members o Can be a shift to either greater risk or greater caution o Has both informational and normative explanations  Group Think  A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group , when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action o Extreme form of group polarization  There was a huge famous public launch and engineers warned their bosses that one of the materials was not tested below 12 degrees and it was four degrees day of launch, it was not brought to the upper level due to the enormous publicity that it already had  Prevent group think: o Everyone must know this person was assigned this role o Leader remains impartial: seek feedback from people outside the group o Begin by creating subgroups which suggest ideas to the group as a whole o Anonymous opinions from group members  Jury Decision Making  Group decision making and juries o Cascade Effect: judgements of initial speakers shape successors, who do not disclose what they know or think o Jury goes around the room of juries and asks guilty or not guilty  Voters vote together and make their vote the same as initial voters  Value of unanimity o Causes group to be extra cohesive  Group think is AMPLIFIED o However, lack of unanimity requirement increases rates of guilty verdicts  just world hypothesis applied to a defendant  predeliberation errors are biased toward belief of defendant’s guilt  12 person vs. 6 person juries o 6 person juries convict more often while 12 person juries are more likely to have a rebel o Deindividuation  The state in which a person loses the sense of him or herself as in individual and usually occurs in groups, when physically anonymous (people can’t identify due to same attire of group, or group chanting  People due because they get trampled on in crowds, and you increase deindividuation  Cults: a social group centered around devotion to a person/idea/thing that employs unethical techniques of manipulation or control  Leadership: o Who should lead: anyone o Great Person Theory: good leaders are not intrinsic to their personality, except the ability to take multiple people’s view and then make decisions o Integrative Complexity: the ability to simultaneously hold, consider, and integrate multiple perspectives on an issue Lecture 7 – Emotion and Morality - Emotion: a brief physiological and psychological response to an event that is felt subjectively and prepares a person for action o Basic Emotions: fear, anger, disgust, sadness, happiness, surprise o Complex Emotions: blends of basic emotions  Positive Emotions:  Gratitude: sense of appreciation  Contentment: happy without intensity, being satisfied  Amusement: what makes us laugh and why things are funny  Desire: intense, reward focussed emotion, we don’t think of risks  Love  Self Conscious Emotions: complex emotions elicited by the self  Most Studied Examples: o Pride o Shame: involves anger component  You feel bad about yourself o Guilt: apologize for your behaviour  Longer last relationship  Better leaders  Makes workers work better, while shames makes you want to leave your workplace o Embarrassment: easy to pick out  People usually smile, duck head, shield face  Mixture of positive and negative feelings - Emotions are short lived, real emotions last between 500 milliseconds to 4 seconds - An emotion can appear to persist if the emotional stimulus is presented repeatedly o Surprise is the briefest o Happiness, disgust, and sadness are standard length o Anger and feat last longer (maximum is usually minutes) o Some argue that love is not a real emotion because it last too long - Moods, sentiments, affective personality traits (cheerful) and arousal are not emotions due to the lengths they occur in - Mood versus emotions o Moods are generalized state, but they do not have the following criteria for an emotion  Mood is not always a response to an evocative stimulus  Mood persist over time, could be minutes, hours, days  Mood may not call for an action  Moods are mostly subjective, not observable physiologically - Physiology and Emotion o Peripheral Nervous System and Emotion  Emotions should either increase heart rate, skin conductance, finger temperature  Cannot be identified by peripheral responses  Indicate degree of arousal or intensity o Central Nervous System and Emotion  Limbic system:  Amygdala: fear and anger (longest lasting)  Hypothalamus: laughter  Frontal Cortex - everything else - James Lange Theory o Every emotion has a distinct , specific patter of physiological responses that characterized and underlies it o Implications:  Implies that our physiological experience of emotion is the result of our underlying physiological response  Implies that every emotion has a physiological signature, a patter or profile of physiological responses that uniquely identify it o Specific bodily response tells us what emotion we are feeling o Bodily response is specific o For example: we see a bear, we sweat and heart increases, then we run, and we become afraid - Cognitive Appraisals: o The meaning of an event affects our emotional response to it  Ex: getting punched  He meant to do it, and he meant it to hurt or he did it jokingly? - Two Factor Theory o Presence of angry person makes the participants more angry o Stimulus tells you how to feel - Facial Action Muscles (FAM) o Frontalis – surprise – goes up very quickly o Levator Labii – moves up when in disgust o Orbicularis Oris – smiles and subvocalization o Curragator Supercilii and Orbicularis Oculi – anger and sadness - Functional Service of Emotions o What emotions are suppose to do for us, go to or away something o Emotions allow us to act quickly (like heuristics) o Emotions all us to quickly respond to the most important stimuli in life  Like life and death scenarios - Moral Reasoning: how do you decide whether you think something is morally right or wrong? o Utilitarian Reasoning: Basing your moral decisions on the outcomes/ends/utility of an action o Deontological Reasoning:  Basing your moral decisions on reduction of harm o Disgust  Elicited by violations of divinity  Purity and cleanliness  Ex: 70 year old male has sex with 15 year old female o Anger  Elicited by violations of autonomy  Individual rights, and personal harm  Ex: drunk husband beats his wife o Contempt  Elucidated by violations of community  Community and hierarchy  Ex: teenager does not give up seat to an elderly disabled woman - Social Intuitionist Model o Two steps of moral reasoning  Make moral judgements based on emotional reaction  Try to come with acceptable justification for that reaction o Logical Morality  Cognition still has a say  Neural correlated of utilitarian and deontological moral reasoning - Moral Forecasting vs. Moral Action o Moral Forecasting: making a prediction about how you would behave in a moral dilemma o Moral Action: your behaviour in a real moral dilemma - Moral Psychology o We evaluate morality based largely on intuition, but utilitarian decision making still occurs o When immersed in a social dilemma, we tend to be more physiologically aroused than when we just think about being in a moral dilemma  This physiological arousal seems to generally predict people doing the right thing Lecture 8 – Initial Attraction and Close Relationships - Propinquity Effect: the more we see and interact with other people, the more likely we are to become friends due to similarity o Why does close proximity promote attraction?  We see someone we are more primed to think of them  We like that we have access to them (availability, and accessibility)  Mere exposure: the more exposure you get to a neutral object, the more you will like it  Does not apply if the object has negative qualities  Own Face: tend to prefer our mirror image over photograph image, but friends prefer photograph image o We like mirror image more because that’s how we see us o You like what you can see more - Similarity or Complementary? o Similarity: We like people who are more similar to us o Complementary: opposite attract - Reciprocity o People low in self esteem do not need reciprocal liking o People pick up on subtle cues of liking: eye contact, leaning in, attentive listening, and mimicry o If your partner doesn’t like you, you automatically don’t like them either and you act mean towards them - Physical attractiveness and liking o What is attractive?  Men – large eyes, strong cheekbones, large chin, big smile  Women – large eyes, small nose, prominent cheekbones, narrow cheeks, high highbrows, large pupils, big smile o Baby Facedness  Features: large eyes, rounder face and nose  Characteristics: more persuasive, more trustworthy, evoke liking and caregiving behaviours o Symmetry Matters  More beautiful if you have both halves of your face as the same o Composites  As you add more composites to one face you becomes more attractive  They are more attractive because they are more familiar and more prototypical and symmetrical o Babies stare at attractive faces longer  There is fair amount of cross-cultural consistency in attractiveness judgements o Beauty promotes attraction  Beautiful is a good schema  Creates a halo effect  Occurs most for social competence  More sociable, extraverted, popular, sexual, happy, friendly - Matching hypothesis: we seek partners that are of similar attractiveness to us, and are more satisfied with these partners o Evidence for matching hypothesis:  Couples of similar attractiveness were more likely to continue after a blind date  Seek people in “our league”, people who have same attractive level are more likely to continue relationship - Scarcity: if potential mates are not plentiful, we may shift our standards of attractiveness o Attractiveness ratings of opposite sex increased with evening progression  People begin to feel weary that they won't meet anyone as it gets later - Evolutionary Fitness o Potential to pass on your genes by successfully procreating  Need to make babies who have ability to make babies  Ability to survive to mating year  Ability to maximize the number of offspring that survive to their mating years - Reproductive Investment of Each Sex o The investment of time, resources, and risk involved in having each child  Typically caries between sexes  The sex which bear the most reproductive costs is “choosier”  Being choosier makes it costly to reproduce o Choosy Sex: bears the most reproductive costs and investments  Usually the female but not always  Sex with least reproductive costs:  Should want more partners  Will be in competition for mates more often  Displays greater physical variation - Polygamy: several members of one sex mating with one individual of the other sex o Polygyny: several females maters with one male (90% of mammals) o Polyandry: several males mater with one female  less common by far  hyenas are like this - Sexual Dimorphism o Pronounced difference in the size or bodily structures of the two sexes o Seen in polygamous animals o Females are generally smaller when there’s lots of males to choose from - Monogamy o Reproductive partnership based on a more or less permanent tie between partners o Sexes are close to indistinguishable based on physical characteristics o One male for one female, both genders are equal in size o Co-occurrence of oxytocin and dopamine in nucleus accumbens  Dopamine – reward neurotransmitter  Oxytocin – attachment hormone that is also a neuropeptide  Activation of one activates the other  In polygamous animals there’s no oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens - Homosexuality o Still have focus on some sort of reproductive care giving o Reproductive partnerships between members of the same sex o Usually displayed with disproportionate number of males and female adults o Even during split, you will still see homosexual behaviour - Humans and Polygamy or Monogamy? o If we are not monogamous, we are the only polygamous creature with both dopamine and oxytocin receptors o Usually only one sex is variant, but with humans, both are variant  Women and men are both physically varied  But with polygamy only one is variant o Cannot say we are one over the other, cultural aspect influences which one we are - Need to belong o Health is also affected by the belonging or not belonging to a group o Motivation of belonging:  Belonging is a basic human motivation  Sociometer theory: human survival tactics require several people  Need a group of people to do a task effectively o Human child are helpless for several years after birth - Social Isolation o Considered a form on torture o Long term isolation is a form of official torture or punishment in every society o Social rejection is an unofficial way to enforce social rules in every society o Effects observed in other primates as well o Ex: Isolating monkey for three months  Huddling alone, rocking, become incompetent parents
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