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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Group Processes Groups: two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.  Social groups: have social norms, roles, and group cohesiveness  Social norms: group‟s prescriptions for the behaviour, values, and beliefs of the members o Group members are expected to conform to these norms o To not conform can lead to punishment and exclusion  Social roles: group‟s expectations for the behaviour and responsibilities for the various subgroups of its members o Potential costs: individual personality may be taken over by power of role and violation of social roles may result in censure from other group members o The Stanford Prison Experiment  Group cohesiveness: the degree to which a group is or is perceived to be close knit and similar o In minds of group members: cohesiveness promotes liking and ingroup favouritism o In minds of outgroup members: cohesiveness results in stereotyping of group members Destructive groups (Cults): social group centered around devotion to a person/belief/thing that employs unethical methods of manipulation and control  Defining characteristics of destructive cults 1. Charismatic leaders 2. Leaders are self-appointed 3. Leader is focus of veneration 4. Group culture tends towards totalitarianism 5. Group usually has 2 or more sets of ethics 6. Group presents itself as exclusive and innovative 7. Main goals: recruitment and fundraising Deindividuation: state in which person loses the sense of himself as an individual – occurs in crowds, when physically anonymous, when group chanting/stomping  Social identity model of deindividuation effects Social facilitation and social loafing: effects of groups on individual performance  Social facilitation: tendency for performance to be – improved when doing well- learnt or dominant behaviours in front of others and inhibited when doing less practiced or difficult tasks in the presence of others  Social loafing: tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a group and not being individually evaluated  Process of Social Facilitation or Social Loafing: Evaluation, Arousal, and Task Complexity o Evaluation Apprehension: concern about being judged/evaluated o Socioevaluative threat: extreme evaluation apprehension. Leads to:  Body responds with stress hormone, cortisol  Cortisol constricts blood vessels in hippocampus, inhibiting memory and learning  Distraction-conflict theory: attentional conflict occurs when a person is trying to pay attention to more than one stimuli. It occurs when the person is pressured into trying to pay attention to each stimuli equally. Attention is then diminished.  Collective effort model: working on tasks as a group tends to weaken motivation by: o Lowering individual‟s expectations that their input will have any effect on final goal o Reducing subjective value of goals to the individual Group decision making  Process loss: any aspect of group interactions that inhibits good problem solving  Brainstorming: technique in which a conclusion for a problem is found by group members all suggesting different ideas  Group polarization: tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than initial inclinations of their members o Can be a shift to either greater risk or greater caution o Has both informational and normative reasoning  Group think: mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive ingroup, when the members desire for unanimity overrides the motivation to realistically appraise other courses of action – extreme form of group think o Antecedents: highly cohesive; isolation; directive leader; high stress; non- structured decision-making procedures o Symptoms: illusion of invulnerability; group is morally corrected; outgroup is stereotyped; self-censorship; pressure for conformity; illusion of unanimity; mindguards o Consequences: incomplete survey of alternatives; failure to look at risks of favoured alternative; poor information search; no contingency plans  How to prevent group think: o Assign someone to play devil‟s advocate – the group must know that this person is playing this role o Leader remains impartial o Search for feedback outside of group o Make subgroups that suggest ideas to the rest of group o Anonymity Transactive memory: mechanism through which group members collectively encode, store, and retrieve knowledge Emotions What is an emotion?: brief psychological and physiological response to an event that is felt subjectively and prepares a person for action What is not an emotion?:  Moods: o Not always response to evocative stimulus o Can persist over time – hours, days etc. o May not call for action o Are subjective  Affective personality traits: traits that define a person – she is a happy girl  Level of arousal: when presented by itself – sleepiness 6 basic emotions: fear, anger, disgust, sadness, happiness, surprise  Complex emotions: blends of basic emotions o Affect blends: o Positive emotions: positively valenced emotions (mostly complex)  Gratitude  Contentment  Amusement  Desire  Love – though this is contested because love can technically be defined as lasting longer than a brief moment o Self-conscious emotions: complex emotions elicited by the self  Pride  Shame – externally caused  Guilt – internally caused  Embarrassment Measuring emotions:  Self-report: how do you feel in this scenario  Facial action muscles o Frontalis – surprised o Levator labii – only ones involved in disgust o Obicularis oris – involved in smiles and subvocalizations o Buccinator – smiles o Massetor – smiles o Obicularis oculi – involved in emotion as a whole o Currogator supercilii – involved in almost all negative emotions o Zygomaticus major - smiling  Emotional facial displays o Nonverbal communication o Encoding o Decoding  Facial EMG: captures subtle facial movements – best used in situations where facial movement is not visibly detectable  Facial Action Coding System: codes overt facial expressions. o Numbers are all facial muscle actions o Classifies emotions as pattern of muscle action that occur together Components of emotion Time span of emotion  Emotion can appear to persist if stimulus is presented repeatedly  Real emotions: between 500 ms and 4 s  Fake emotions: 1 – 10 s  Surprise is shortest  Happiness, sadness, disgust are standard length  Fear and anger last a little longer that standard Physiological component:  Peripheral nervous system: most researchers need a peripheral physiological response to a state that an emotion has produced – sweating, heart rate, finger pulse o However – emotions cannot be identified by peripheral responses (ex. She has a heart rate of X which means she must be feeling (Y). The responses just tell degree of arousal or intensity  Central nervous system: o Limbic system – amygdala: fear and anger. Hypothalamus: laughter o Frontal Cortex: all the other emotions  Proper inference of psychophysiology: physiological responses can tell us arousal, intensity, and potential paths of emotion. They cannot tell us the identity of the emotion, simply by studying the emotional states  James-Lange Theory of Emotion: every emotion has a distinct, specific pattern of physiological responses that characterizes and underlies it. Implications: o Our psychological experiences of emotion are simply results of underlying physiological responses o Implies that every emotion has a physiological response pattern that can identify it o Specific bodily response to an event tells us what we are feeling  Example: see a threat  begin to sweat, increased heart rate, run = fear o Directed facial action task: 1. Give participants certain instructions of how to arrange face 2. Ask them what expression they are demonstrating 3. Measure physiological responses a. Participants were able to identify facial expressions b. Reliable physio profiles Cognitive component  Cognitive appraisals: The meaning of an event affects our emotional response to it  Key appraisals for eliciting emotion o Self-relevance: was event about me o Goal congruence: what was the effect of the event o Blame and responsibility: was the event my fault or theirs? o Certainty o Coping ability  Two-Factor Theory of Emotion 1. Physiological response is generalised, not specific 2. We apply a label to arousal based on cognitive appraisal  Two-factor theory of love/misattribution of arousal: o Dutton & Aron Bridge Study 1. Participants cross a dangerous rope bridge 2. Due to heightened emotional arousal, they are more likely to attribute that arousal to the first person that they see and feel more strongly for them. a. They attribute their surge of emotion to the wrong source. Interest as opposed to fear. Behavioural component  Facial display: people can try to fake emotions. Usually, we can see it in their eyes.  Body posture: shoulders back and upright posture portrays more confidence than being hunched over  Vocal tone: It can carry tone and emotion. Ex. Sarcasm. Rising intonation at the end of a phrase can mean question.  Touch Action  Action tendencies of emotions: emotions have „action tendencies‟ that make us approach or avoid the emotional stimulus o Anger = approach o Disgust = avoid o Fear = avoid o Happiness = approach  This is the functionality of emotions: emotions allow us to respond to the most important stimuli in life Universality/Functionality of emotions  Adaptive value of emotions – Darwin: emotions are adaptive, solving problems of survival, reproduction, producing young  Expression of emotion: expression evolved before language o Continuity across species o Universality within species  Ekman studies on universality of emotion: prototypical expressions of emotion seem to be universally recognizable and producible o Ekman showed images of 6 basic emotions to newly found culture. Also had them act out the basic emotions.  Culture did influence how, when, and to whom emotions are expressed o Situational context o Relational context o Intensity  Culturally-specific emotions: o Amae (Japanese): pleasant feeling of depending on someone else o Schadenfreude (German): pleasure from the misfortune of others o Hasham (Bedouin): pleasant feeling of humility Morality Moralization: transformation of preferences to values  Cultural: no prostitution in Canada  Individual: vegetarianism in Canada Moral reasoning: how do you decide that something is morally right or wrong?  Utilitarian reasoning: basing decision on outcomes/end/utility of action  Deontological reasoning: basing decisions on reduction of harm Moral emotions: most modern social psychology considers emotion to be a part of the influences on the reasoning process  Feelings as information: emotions used as information when making judgements (ex. I feel good about this so it must be good) o Reduces complexity o Rapid decision making  “Moral triad” of emotions: moral violations elicit certain emotions o Disgust – violations of divinity  cleanliness, purity o Anger – violations of autonomy  individual rights, personal harm o Contempt – violations of community  community, hierarchy  Social Intuitionist Model 1. Make moral judgement based on emotional reaction 2. Try to come up with reasoning for emotional reaction Dual-process theory of moral reasoning: two types of reasoning involved in moment of moral decision making:  Emotional processes  Utilitarian processes  Neural structures involved in rational and emotional moral reasoning: o Everyone shows activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) when making difficult moral decisions o More activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex than ACC when people make an utilitarian moral decision Role of physiological arousal in moral action  Teper, Inzlicht, & Page-Gould (2011) 1. Participants write a test under three conditions a. Control: writing test under no cover story b. Moral action: writing test but with belief that they had chance to cheat c. Moral forecasting: going through the test and predicting where you would cheat 2. Key variable was moral behaviour – how many times they cheated 3. Physiological behaviour – sympathetic (stress) and parasympathetic (divided attention) 4. Predicted cheating more than actually did 5. More physiological arousal lead to people cheating less  Also as compared to predicted moral action (“moral forecasting”) o Moral Action: how you actually behave in a moral dilemma o Moral forecasting: how you think you‟ll behave in a moral dilemma Initial Attraction Proximity: the actual physical closeness can lead to interaction – availability/accessibility; mere exposure; suggests similarity  Propinquity effect: more we see and interact with other people, the more likely they are to become our friends Familiarity:  Mere-exposure: more exposure you get to a neutral object, the more likely you are to like it o This does not occur when the object has negative qualities  We tend to like mirror images of our faces (because that is what is familiar to us) and our friends prefer our photographed faces (because that is what is familiar to them) Similarity: birds of a feather flock together  research shows that similarity promotes liking  Versus complementarity: opposites attract Reciprocity & Attraction/Reciprocal Liking: we like people that like us  Subtle liking cues o Eye contact o Leaning in o Attentive listening o Mimicry  This doesn‟t always work on people with low self-esteem/negative self-image Attractiveness What is attractive?:  Attractiveness in men and women o Men: large eyes, strong cheekbones, big smile, large chin o Women: large eyes, small nose, prominent cheekbones and narrow cheeks, high eyebrows, large pupils, big smile  Why these features might be important o Large pupils: desire o Big smile: confidence o Cheekbones: strong bones  Symmetry: composite faces are rated as more attractive because they are more symmetrical o More familiar and more prototypical  Averageness: average faces appear more attractive o Still we‟d rather have composites over averages  Babyfacedness: large eyes, rounder face and nose – babies are non-threatening o More persuasive o More trustworthy o Evoke liking and caregiving behaviours  Cultural influence: fair amount of cross-cultural consistency in what is attractive Attractiveness and liking/attraction: babies stare at attractive faces longer;  Beautifulness-is-good Stereotype: beauty creates „halo effect‟. Attractiveness = goodness o Occurs most for social competence o More sociable, extraverted, popular o More sexual, happy, friendly o May actually have a bit of truth Cultural shifts in attractiveness Attractiveness and relationships  Matching hypothesis: we seek partners that are of similar attractiveness to us and we are more satisfied with the partners o Couples who met during blind date are more likely to continue dating if of similar attractiveness  Similarity in attractiveness predicted: o Satisfaction in relationship o Relationship longevity o Lower break-up rate at 6 month follow-up Misattribution of Arousal  Dutton & Aron Bridge study 1. Participants cross a dangerous rope bridge 2. Due to heightened emotional arousal, they are more likely to attribute that arousal to the first person that they see and feel more strongly for them. a. They attribute their surge of emotion to the wrong source. Interest as opposed to fear. Scarcity & Attraction: if potential mates are not plentiful, we may shift our standards of attractiveness Close Relationships Evolutionary perspectives on relationships  Evolutionary fitness: potential to pass on your genes/successfully procreate o Ability to survive to mating years o Ability to maximize the amount of offspring that survive to their mating years Polygamy and monogamy Polygamy: several members of one sex mating with one individual of the other sex  Polygyny: several females with one male  Polyandry: several males with one female Reproductive investment: „investment‟ of time, resources, and risk in having each child  Sexual “Choosiness”: sex that bears the most reproductive cost in having the child is choosier. Usually the female (not always)  Sex with least reproductive costs: o Should want more partners o Will be in competition for mates more often o Displays greater physical variation Sexual dimorphism: pronounced difference in the size or bodily structure of the two sexes  Usually seen in polygamous animals Monogamy: reproductive partnership based on a more or less permanent ties between partners  Sexes are close to indistinguishable in body size Biological basis of monogamy: Oxytocin & Dopamine  Oxytocin: reward hormone  Dopamine: „Attachment‟ hormone o The two hormones‟ receptors share the same nucleus accumbens o The activation of one activates the other o All of the 5% of monogamous animals share this o Polygamous animals do not Homosexuality: reproductive partnership between the members of the same sex  Usually when there is a disproportionate male and female mating adults Human mating  Polygamous features of humans o Sexual dimorphism o Great physical variations o 85% of traditional cultures allow some form of polygamy  Monogamous features of humans o Co-occurrence of dopamine and oxytocin in human brain o Great physical variations among both sexes o Major percentage of men and women plan to settle with one partner  Human Mate Selection: human sexual selection changes over lifetime o Young adulthood: tends towards polygamy o Mid-20s onward: tends toward monogamy Need to belong  Motivation of belonging: belonging is a basic human motivation  Evolutionary explanations: o Sociometer theory: we are constantly monitoring to see how we are being accepted within a group o Human “Survival tactics”: need several people in order to provide necessities to live – building shelters, hunting for food o Development of human children: human children are helpless for several years so we need to take care of them  Social isolation: viewed as a form of official torture/punishment in every society o Effects of social isolation: unofficial way to enforce social rules in every society o Harlow‟s Monkeys 1. Isolated monkey became withdrawn, rocking, self-mutilation 2. Introduction of therapy monkey – monkey who has not isolated to act as friend 3. Isolated monkey begins to interact with therapy monkey after two weeks 4. Isolated monkey seems normally after six months, is still more easily stressed than other monkeys Attachment Theory: explains how infants become emotionally attached to their caregivers and emotionally distressed at their absence  Comforts fearful child  Builds expectations for future relationships  Provides „secure base‟ for exploration  Imprinting: more basic form of attachment bond which occurs shortly after birth/hatching in most species o Animals show distress when imprinted object is removed o Must occur during „sensitive period‟ Adult Attachment: acts a lot like child-caregiver attachment  Prefer proximity, with distress on separation  Turn to partner for support when stressed, in danger  Derive security from partner, enabling exploration of and engagement with rest of world Attachment styles  Secure: Finds it relatively easy to get on with others, and comfortable depending on/being depended on by others. Does not have fear of abandonment or having people get too close o 56% of people o Memories of caregivers: dependable and loving  Anxious-Ambivalent: Finds that others are reluctant to get as close to them as they want. Worries that partner doesn‟t love them as much as they themselves do. Wants to merge with another person, and this scares people away. o 19% of people o Memories of caregivers: both negative and positive memories  Avoidant: Somewhat uncomfortable with other people, find it difficult to trust them or to depend on them. Nervous when people get too close and romantic partners wish for them to be more intimate than they are currently. (21% of people) o Fearful avoidant: seek less intimacy from partners and try to hide their own emotions. Sometimes accompanied by unconscious negative views about themselves and partners. May have been caused by abuse at some point in life. o Dismissive avoidant: “I am comfortable without close attachments.” Desire independence above all, often viewed as avoidance of relationships. Avoid intimacy  Attachment dimensions o Attachment avoidance o Attachment anxiety  Global versus specific attachment orientations: o Global: o Specific: Closeness Cognitive Component Self-expansion theory: experience of closeness is an associative overlap of our self- concept with our concept of a close other  AKA “Inclusion-of-Other-In-Self”  Information of close others is correlated strongly associated with self-related information  Self/Other overlap o In TAT test, longer reaction times in making „me/not me‟ decision of spouse‟s characteristics o Make more situational attributions for self and close others o Make more dispositional attributions for non-close others Interdependence Theory/Investment Model: mental state characterized by a pluralistic, collective representation of the self-in-relationship Social Exchange Theory  Commitment  Satisfaction  Reward/cost ratio o Comparison level o Quality of alternatives  Investment Affective Component Theories of Love  Companionate Love: feelings of intimacy and affection we feel when we care deeply for a person, but without sexual arousal or passion o Can exist between friends or lovers o Valued in all cultures  Passionate Love: feelings of intense longing for a person, usually accompanied with physiological arousal o Valued in 144 of 167 cultures Positive illusions: Idealization of close others; seeing them as more positive than they see themselves  Couples who maintained positive illusions were: o Decreasing instances of conflict o Increasing satisfaction o Decreasing doubts of relationship o Were more likely to be together Behavioural Component Co-operative dilemmas: What to do when one of the partners begins to behave destructively?  Accommodate: focus on long-term relationship goals instead of short-term, self- serving goals Relationship Dissolution What couples do well: longevity is correlated with marital stability when:  Married after age 20, similar age  Grew up in 2-parent homes  Dated for long time but did not live together  Same level of education  Good income  Religious  Sense of equity  Sex often, arguments rarely Novel experiences: sharing new experiences  Exploration of environment with partner as secure base Why relationships fail  Low equity  Less positive illusions  Low interdependence  Boredom – lack of novel experiences  Top causes of conflict: o Sex o Money o Kids – marital satisfaction drops after first child is born and returns when children leave house How relationships fail  Friendships: people usually use „passive strategies‟ to end relationship o Avoidance or withdrawal  Romantic relationships: people usually use „direct strategies‟ to end relationship o Direct confrontation Rejection:  Neurochemical basis of rejection o Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC)  associated with „distress signal‟ during physical pain o Right Ventral Prefrontal Cortex (rvPFC)  associated with regulation and inhibition of felt pain  Relationship between social pain and physical pain o If social pain is physically painful, interrupting the experience of pain should dull the pain of reje
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