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Midterm Study Notes

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Connie Boudens

PSYB10 Midterm Study Notes Lecture 01 Social Psychology - Uses scientific methods “to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of other human beings” –GordonAlport, 1985 “ABCs of Social Psychology” - Affect o Emotions, feelings, and mood - Behavior o Verbal and nonverbal action - Cognition o Thought, sensation, perception, processing, and memory Experimental Setup - Brosnan & de Waal (2003), Nature Research question: - Do non-human primates consider social concepts like fairness into their decision-making about basic needs Methods: - Collect data from a bunch of pairs of Capuchin monkeys - Between-subjects Independent Variable: The Experiment either… - Equity condition: …both monkeys get cucumbers for their tokens - Inequity condition: …one monkey a cucumber and the other gets a grape - Record how many times each Capuchin refuses to eat or barter Social Cognition - The “Self” - Self-regulation - Perceiving, understanding, and predicting others - Interacting with others - Intergroup relations - Attitudes and Persuasion Group Processes - Conformity & Dissent - Social Roles and Norms Interpersonal Processes - Emotions - Morality - Attraction and Close Relationships - Culture and Identity - Social Power and Hierarchy - Aggression Prosocial Behavior - Helping - Altruism - Stress and Health History of Social Psych - Aristotle, Machiavelli, Darwin - Theory: Wundt & James - Triplett (1898): Social Facilitation - Kurt Lewin - World War II - Cultural events Theoretical History - Late 1800s: o Subfield of Philosophy o William James - Wundt: “Experimental Psychology” Triplett (1898) - Social Facilitation - Performance affected by presence of others Kurt Lewin - “Father of social psychology” o Research interests  Perception and cognition  “Dyadic Interactionism” World War II - Government interests in Social Psychology o Persuasion and propaganda o Key social psychologists funded to study effective War BondAds - Post War o How did Nazi Germany happen? o Milgram’s “Obedience toAuthority” Cultural Events - Murder of Kitty Genovese o March 13 , 1964 o At least 39 witnesses  No one intervened or even called the police - Darley’s & Latene’s “BystanderApathy” research - Jonestown Mass Suicide th o November 18 , 1978 o 907 people poisoned themselves (or were poisoned by their parents) Methods in Social Psych - Social Psychology toolkit - Research and statistical methods Social Psychology toolkit - Self-report/surveys - Reaction time tasks - Priming - Nonverbal/verbal behavior - Neuroscience and Psychophysiology Self-report/Surveys - Obtained by: o Pencil-and-paper o Computer survey o Interview Reaction Time Tasks - Obtained by: o Computers o Stop watches o Video/audio Priming - Presented: o Subliminally o Explicit priming Nonverbal/Verbal Behavior - Obtained by: o Video cameras o Audio recording o Close observation Neuroscience - Obtained by: o Functional MRI (fMRI) o Brain-damaged patients o Electroencephalogram (EEG) Psychophysiology - Obtained by: o Spot & band electrodes o Temperate sensors o Plethsmographs o Saliva Social Cognition - Thinking about social objects Social Object - Aphysical object that has the ability to engage in social cognition (Social) Cognition Basics - Thinking o Automatic cognition o Controlled cognition - Cognition: o Perception o Processing/Encoding o Storage/Knowledge Representation o Retrieval/Application Perception - Becoming aware of something through senses Pre-Attentive Processes - Rapid processing of complex scene o Rapid = less than 250 ms o Complex = large, multi-element display of information - Something that “catches your eye” or “pops out at you” Processing Information - Encoding o Selecting information from the environment and storing it in memory Attention - Selective perception Schemas - Mental structures used to organize knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects o Efficient processing o Guide attention and memory o Bias against schema incongruent information Self-fulfilling Prophecy - How does attractiveness shape our interactions? o Synder, Tanke, & Berscheid (1977) - Method (Phase 1): o 1. Develop stimuli:  20 females pose for pictures  20 males rate pictures on attractiveness  The researchers kept 4 attractive & 4 unattractive pictures as stimuli for Phase 2 o 2. Schedule male and female participants in pairs  Males given either attractive or unattractive pictures  They talk for 10 minutes over the phone  Conversations are recorded Semantic Network - Prototype Theory of Categorization o Objects are classified based on similarity to a prototype - Related concepts are stored closely together in memory - Spreading activation
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