ch. 5 - the self

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Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Chapter 5 The nature of self William james (one of the founders of psychology), described the basic duality of our perception of self o First, the self is composed of ones thoughts and beliefs about oneself or what James called the known or simply me o Second, the self is also the active processor of information, the knower or the i o In modern terms, we refer to the known as the self concept o Self concept: the contents of the self; that is, our knowledge of who we are o The knower is the self awareness o self awareness: the act of thinking about ourselves o these two aspects of the self combine to create a coherent sense of identity people`s self concept change as they grow up and this was tested by asking people ``who am I`` o a child will answer this by giving observable characteristics such as age, sex, neighbourhood, and hobbies ex. a 9 year old answered this question by saying i have brown eyes, i have brown hair, Im a boy, etc as we mature, we place less emphasis on physical characteristics and more emphasis on our psychological states (eg. Our thoughts and feelings)-ex. define ourself as extroverts, being on only child, a spiritual person, etc self-concept clarity is defined as the extent to which knowledge about the self is stable, and clearly and consistently defined people who are low in self-concept clarity are more likely to be neurotic and have low self-esteem and are less likely to be aware of their internal state people who are low in self-concept clarity are less likely to engage in positive forms of self-focus like reflection o eg. i love exploring my inner self therefore, not having a clear, confident sense of who you are can have negative effects on your thought and emotions www.notesolution.comFunctions of the self researchers have found that the self serves both an organizational function and an executive function Organizational function of the self self schemas: mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about themselves and that influence what they notice, think about, and remember about themselves o ex. sara and jenny play volleyball together and watch an old movie. The way they think about certain things will depend on their slef-schemas o sara plays a lot of sports and athleticism is an important part of her self-schema. Thus, shes likely to remember the volleyball game more than the movie o jenny is in a lot of plays and will think about and remember the movie more than the volleyball game self schemas also act as lenses through which people view others o ex. if sara and jenny meet sam who is a talental actor and athlete o sara is more likely to notice and remember his athletic skills whereas jenny is more likely to notice and remember his acting talents self reference effect: the tendency for people to remember information better if they relate it to themselves integrating information with our self-schemas helps us organize it better and connect it to other information about ourselves, which makes us more likely to remember it later When people are motivated to see themselves as having a good quality or trait, they conduct a memory search for examples of past behaviours that goes along with that trait. The evidence then allows them to come to a conclusion that the good trait is a part of their self-schemas Self-regulation: the executive function The self also serves an executive function, regulating peoples behaviour, choices and plans or the future
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