Chapter 8 Study Questions

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Social Psychology, 4Ce (AronsonWilsonAkertFehr) Chapter 8 Group Processes: Influence in Social Groups Ch. 8-01 _______ exists when two or more people are interdependent, when they need to rely on one another to achieve their needs or goals. A) A group B) A collective C) A minimal group D) Social roles E) A social loafer Answer: A Type: MC Page Ref: 232 Skill: Factual Ch. 8-02 When social psychologists define a group as a collection of interdependent people, they mean that A) members needs and goals cause them to influence one another. B) there is seldom interpersonal conflict in social groups. C) minimal groups often evolve into social groups. D) the group members interact with one another. E) members of groups have relatively little impact on one another. Answer: A Type: MC Page Ref: 232 Skill: Conceptual Ch. 8-03 Families, church or synagogue congregations, student organizations, and sports teams can be conceived of as groups because A) they are part of our evolutionary and cultural heritage as humans. B) they are typically composed of more than ten members. C) they typically are composed of more than two members. D) they are relatively stable collections of individuals who share the same goals. E) individual members interact with one another and influence one another. Answer: E Type: MC Page Ref: 232-233 Skill: Applied Ch. 8-04 In groups, interdependence is reflected in A) working toward a common goal. B) communicating with one another. C) influencing and being influenced. D) group conflict E) finding alternatives to conflict. Answer: C Type: MC Page Ref: 232-233 Skill: Applied Ch. 8-05 Roy Baumeister and Mark Leary (1995) argue that the need to belong to groups is present in all societies because A) the Industrial Revolution brought about increased specialization in the workforce. B) hunting and farming have been replaced by business and technology. C) interaction with many people is unavoidable. D) cultural norms everywhere dictate that people cooperate. E) group membership has conferred evolutionary advantages to humans. Answer: E Type: MC Page Ref: 233 Skill: Conceptual 1 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada www.notesolution.comCh. 8-06 Which of the following statements is false concerning the function of group membership? A) Bonding in groups conveys an evolutionary advantage. B) Groups convey behavioural expectations through social roles. C) Groups can motivate people to be involved in social change. D) Groups can define social identity and influence future aspirations. E) Groups improve task performance and productivity. Answer: E Type: MC Page Ref: 233 Skill: Factual Ch. 8-07 Josh is the president of his college residence hall, and he is therefore expected to act in a respectable, dignified manner when he attends campus functions. What social psychological phenomenon does this illustrate? A) a loss of personal identity B) expectation consistency pressure C) conformity D) a social role E) a group representativeness assumption Answer: D Type: MC Page Ref: 234 Skill: Applied Ch. 8-08 Shared group expectations about how particular group members are expected to behave are called A) expectancy effects. B) collective standards. C) social roles. D) norms. E) group effects Answer: C Type: MC Page Ref: 234 Skill: Factual Ch. 8-09 We will not talk about other members behind their backs, and we will never divulge one anothers secrets to anyone, inside or outside this group. The preceding statement reflects A) well defined roles. B) a consensual proscription. C) a group norm. D) a subordinate goal. E) a superordinate goal. Answer: C Type: MC Page Ref: 234 Skill: Applied Ch. 8-10 Whereas _______ specify how all group members should behave, _______ specify how individuals in particular positions should behave. A) roles.....norms B) rules.....roles C) rules....norms D) norms.....rules E) norms.....roles Answer: E Type: MC Page Ref: 234-235 Skill: Conceptual Ch. 8-11 How do norms differ from roles? Norms _______, whereas roles _______. A) are specific.....are general 2 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada B) apply to small groups....apply to large groups C) apply to all group members.....apply to specific group members D) apply to large groups.....apply to small groups E) are expectations.....are requirements Answer: C Type: MC Page Ref: 234-235 Skill: Conceptual Ch. 8-12 One advantage of social roles is that they make individuals rights and responsibilities clear for group members. One disadvantage of such roles, however, is that they A) are not as powerful as norms in guiding behaviours. B) may not share a universal understanding among group members. C) are assigned arbitrarily. D) are less fair than norms, and therefore more harmful. E) carry normative expectations with them. Answer: E Type: MC Page Ref: 234-235 Skill: Conceptual Ch. 8-13 Sometimes when professors ask students to break up into small groups to discuss an issue, answer a question, or solve a problem, students roll their eyes and complain that its the professors job to teach them. This resistance to cooperative learning activities is probably a result of A) psychological reactance. B) students expectations about the professor role. C) social loafing pressures. D) deindividuation processes. E) social facilitation Answer: B Type: MC Page Ref: 234-235 Skill: Applied Ch. 8-14 Which of the following is the important lesson to be learned from Zimbardos Stanford Prison Experiment in which university students played the roles of guards and prisoners. A) Personality variables often have a much stronger impact on behaviour than situational variables. B) People who are by nature authoritarian and abusive prefer jobs like being a prison guard. C) The feeling of being crowded that results from the presence of other people can lead to prison violence. D) The behaviours associated with certain roles can overwhelm ones personal identity and sense of decency. E) People who have strong moral convictions are less likely to become abusive than are weak, passive people. Answer: D Type: MC Page Ref: 234-235 Skill: Conceptual Ch. 8-15 Recall that in the Stanford Prison Study conducted by Philip Zimbardo and his colleagues (1973), guards became increasingly sadistic and prisoners became increasingly submissive and withdrawn, all in under a week. Results of this (aborted) study suggest that A) social roles can take on a power all their own. B) humans are inherently aggressive and will act out in the appropriate situation. C) interdependence can be reduced in powerful situations. D) people who have authoritarian personalities do not make good prisoners. E) norms in the real world are often adopted in artificial settings. Answer: A Type: MC Page Ref: 234-235 Skill: Conceptual 3 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada
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