Social Psych Exam Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Group Processes: Influences in Social Groups - A Group is a collection of 2 or more people who interact with each other and are interdependent, meaning they have the same goals and needs. They are assembled together for a common purpose. - People join groups because they have an innate need to belong. - Groups tend to be alike in age, sex, beliefs and opinions. - Social Norms are determinants of human behaviour. If violated too often, you are either shunned or pressured to leave. - Social Roles: Shared expectations by group members about how particular people in the group are supposed to behave. When members of a group follow a set of rules, they are satisfied and perform well. - Group Cohesiveness is qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking among them. - Social Facilitation: If a task is simple, you will be better in the presence of others. If a task is difficult, you will do worse in the presence of others. Your individual performance can also be evaluated. - Social Loafing: Tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks, when in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be judged. - Deindividuation: The loosening of normal constraints on behaviour when people are in a group, leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts. - It is the specific norms in the group that determines whether deindividuation will lead to positive or negative effects. - Process Loss is any aspect of group interaction that restrains good problem solving. - If one member of a couple is responsible for bills, while the other is responsible for social arrangements, they have Transactive Memory; which is the combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual. - Groupthink: A kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and harmony is more important than considering facts in a realistic manner. - To avoid groupthink, a leader should: Remain impartial, Seek outside opinions, Create subgroups and Seek anonymous opinions. - Group Polarization: The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members. - Great Person Theory: Theory that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the nature of the situation facing the leader. - A Social Dilemma is a conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual, if chosen by most people, will have bad effects on everyone. Interpersonal Attractions - Propinquity Effect: The finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends. - Similarity is the attraction to people who are like us and Complementarity is the attraction to people who are opposite to us. - Similarity in terms of attitudes and values are predictors of attraction in friendship and relationships. - Reciprocal Liking is when you like someone and that person likes you. - Making eye contact, leaning towards the person and listening attentively shows that a person likes you. - When feeling aroused, people often mistake their arousal for romantic feelings; called Misattribution of Arousal. - There are 2 kinds of love, Companionate Love and Passionate Love. Companionate love is the essence of love though; meaning that when defining love, companionate qualities come to mind. - Evolutionary Approach: Men are attracted by women’s appearance (age and health), and woman are attracted by men’s resources because this maximizes their reproductive success. - Attachment Theory: Theory that our behaviour in relationships is based on our experiences as infants with our parents or caregivers. Attachment Styles: - Secure Attachment Style: When parents are responsive and show positive emotions when interacting. Builds trust, a lack of concern with being abandoned and the view that one is well liked. - Avoidant Attachment Style: Children suppress their feelings because parents were distant and resentful. People find it difficult to develop intimate relationships. - Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment Style: Parents are inconsistent and overbearing with affection. Kids cannot predict it. This results in desperate seek for closeness, but get conflicted feelings when in a relationship. - There are 2 types of avoidant style: Fearful avoidant style which is when close relationships are avoided because of mistrust and fear of being hurt. Dismissive avoidant style is when the person is independent and claims not to need close relationships. - The Social Exchange Theory: Perception of the rewards and costs of a relationship, the relationship they deserve and their chance at having a better relationship with someone else. - The Comparison Level is people’s expectations about the level of rewards and costs they deserve in a relationship. - The Comparison Level for Alternatives is people’s expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they would receive in an alternative relationship. - Investment Model: We need to know, a) Satisfaction level b) Alternatives c) Investment - Equity Theory: Theory that people are happiest with relationships in which the contributions from both parties are equal. - For new friends and acquaintances, Exchange Relationships are governed by the need for equity. - For lovers and close friends, Communal Relationships are present in which the primary concern is being responsive to the other person’s needs. - Commitment Calibration Hypothesis: Problem > Commitment, fail. Commitment > Problem, justice. - Positive Illusions: Ideas of our relationships and partners in order to maintain the relationship. - Marriages End because of financial difficulties, unemployment, alcoholism, cheating and bastard kids. Prejudice - Stereotype: Generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to all members of that group, regardless of actual variation among the members. - Discrimination: Negative/harmful action toward a member of a group, solely because of his membership in that group. - The tendency to evaluate in-group members more positively than out-group members is called The In-Group Bias. - If our self-esteem is threatened, we are more likely t
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