Psyb10 midterm study sheet
Overview and methods of social psychology
Definition of social psychology: Uses scientific methods to understand and explain how the
thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied
presence of other human beings.
ABCs of psychology = Thoughts, Feelings, Behaviors...
Affect: emotions, feelings, mood
Behavior: verbal & nonverbal action
Cognition: thought, sensation, perception, processing, memory
Video: 2 confusion monkeys who love grapes but dont mind cucumbers. They each receive tokens & can
see what the other monkey is getting....
Basically, when both receive grape/cucumber, all is happy. When one gets a grape & the other gets a
cucumber, the one getting a cucumber wont accept it because he does not like the value of the cucumber
when compared to the grape.
-Methods in Social Psych: Social psychological toolkit & Research & Statistical Methods
- Social Psych Toolkit: Self-report surveys, Reaction time tasks, priming, nonverbal/verbal behaviour &
neuroscience & psychophysiology
Self-report: pencil & paper, computer, interview
Reaction Time Tasks: VERY common, especially in social cognition. Sit infront of computer & press
buttons to see the speed you can do certain tasks. This came from the late 1800s when a Dutch
psychologists figured out that a harder task will lead to a longer time. Ie dividing versus adding. The
longer time spent concepts are more distantly attached. Obtained through video/audio, computer...
Priming: Try to elicit a mood in a person, or create a certain concept in ones mind. Can be subliminal
(something you wont see) or can be explicit (flashing the fearful ladies face at a person & expecting the
person to feel fear)
Nonverbal/ Verbal: Behavior is a hallmark in social psychology. The man has a complex facial reaction
going on & it can be obtained in many ways; video (good way thanks to rewinding), audio recording, &
close observation (1-way mirror) but this can be imprecise because you can not rewind & go back to it
like you can with video.
Neuroscience: 3 main things used: fMRI (measures brain activity), brain-damaged patients (ie certain
neurological disorder; accident in motorcycle accident & you lose use of your frontal cortex... people
loose their basic functioning because they lose use of their functions & can not differentiate cues given to
them by people. Their view of the social world is changed.) & third, EEG... Psychophysiology: you can put a bunch of electrodes on people, or have them drool & then look at stress
responses. Plain Taboo. Stress hormones & sex hormones are seen in saliva..
Research Statistical Methods
Hypothetico deductive method: have a hypothesis & deduce it ...revise it aswell. But to create your
hypothesis, you must go through the 5 steps: Examine past knowledge/research, form a theory, form an
observational hypothesis (dont just study anger in broad terms, focus on one thing such as facial reaction
when angry), test hypothesis, revise theory
Dependent variable (DV) = outcome
Independent variable (IV) = predictor; only implies causality when it is manipulated! Otherwise only
establishes a relationship.
3 designs: Correlational, Quasi-experimental, experimental
Correlational: 2 DV variables. It is looking for a general relationship between the 2 variables. There is
no experimental manipulation, but there should be random sampling.
Ie People who eat icecream more drown more. But you cant imply causation, you can only say they are
related as they appear at the same time.
Designs include correlation, regression, or Bayesian
If you have a correlation, you can say the 2 predict each other or relate, but you CAN NOT say one
causes the other (Correlation does not imply causation)
You have an ID & a DV, but your IV is not manipulated. You only have KNOWN GROUPS which is
something like gender.
It is called quasi because we do not manipulate the variable. This includes ethnicity or gender because we
dont assign these. You can only say they relate to each other (males & females are the same in this or
There is a control group because you have to compare it. & this is done through stratified random
Video on theory of mind studies (Age group 3 & 5): When a 3 yr old sees that there are pencils in an
m&m package & is asked what would your dad think is inside this? He would say pencils. But a 5yr old
would say m&ms because he knows his dad doesnt know about the pencils inside the m&ms package.
Proper interpretation is covariance & prediction, but NO CAUSALITY. You can discuss differences b/w
groups & suggest why these relations happen, but you cant imply causality. Experimental Designs:
Manipulated IV & random assignment to the conditions. & there must be a control group
MDMA (aka ecsttacy) where ppl generally believe that ecstasy makes you more intact with other people.
This was tested by giving people MDMA & giving others a placebo (to increase your heart rate). The 6
basic faces were looked at (on slides) & people had to judge what emotions the faces were expressing. He
found ppl were not more accurate when judging the faces when on MDMA . they were less accurate when
compared to the control group when judging anger. Therefore it shows that ecstasy keeps ppl wanting to
relate more to others by judging them un-angry.
Analysed through regression, ANOVA, & Bayesian.
Big difference: IV causes DV
Social Cognition: THINKING about social cognition
Ie dropping a non-social object (a pen) & judging what would happen relative to its weight & how it
A social object is different. If prof was to drop a person, she wouldnt be able to predict what would
happen because the person will react differently judging by their cognitive structure.
Theres automatic & controlled cognition.
Controlled is when theres a test infront of you & you think you must focus so you do.
Automatic cognition would be when you think about nurses when you think about doctors. You dont
intentionally think about nurses but it just comes up in your mind because the 2 are related.
Perception becoming aware of something in the senses; perceiving something in the world.
This includes pre-attentive processes. A complex scene is anything with a lot of visual objects (ie a
lecture hall) Rapid is less than 250 milseconds.
Essential pre-attentive processes includes when there is a complex room but your focus is only on the gun
in one persons hand.
Gaze detection: You normally look straight at the face that is looking at you.
..after you perceive something, you have to ENCODE it.
Encoding: selecting info from the environment & storing it in memory. You wont remember everything
in a scene, but mostly the things you focused on the most. Attention(Selective perceptio)is an important aspect because we tend to give the most attention to people
who are higher in status. Example of visual attention The video of the people passing the ball back &
forth to people & then a big black thing walks by. People dont notice this because they pay most
attention to the ball being passed back & forth. It is rather intelligent not to notice the gorilla because it
shows how strong your focused attention is.
Schemas: set of expectations; mental structures used to organize knowledge about the social world
around themes and objects. This is efficient & is guided by attention & memory, which means you will
only pay attention to what you want to. Bias against schema incongruent information; this is when you
know something but since it doesnt fit in with your schema, you ignore it.
Self-fulfilling Prophecy: what you expect is not only what you get, but also what you create about other
people in the world.
An example is SNYDER, TANKE, & BERSCHEID. They looked at how attractiveness shapes our
interactions with other people. First, they developed stimuli. Looked for attractive & unattractive women.
Found 20 females & took their pics then found 20males & asked them how they rated the females. Then
they took the top 4 most and last 4 least attractive and kept these. They then got the males to come in and
gave them a picturerdf the female they would interact with over the phone for 10minutes. Convos were
recorded. Then a 3 group of females were asked to come in & listen to the conversations & they had to
rate the conversation.
*Judges were unaware of the study and therefore there was no bias from them.
Results shows: Men rated unattractive females as less social, less friendly, etc.
The females who lastly heard the conversations & had to rate it: rated that unattractive females were
unsociable, awkward, & serious versus the attractive females who were seen as sociable, poised, and
humorous. THIS WAS ALSO THE SAME PERCEPTION THE MALE JUDGES HAD WHEN
LISTENING TO THE CONVERSATIONS!
This basically shows the importance of schemas & how it creates in other people what we expect of them.
Storage/ Knowledge Representation:
Ellener Rosch (one of the most influential psychologists) had many findings in the 70s. She taught us
how we think & categorize. She argued that we categorize things based on prototypes. Before, humans
thought we categorized things differently & based on rules.
Prototype Theory of Categorization.
Ie it is harder for someone to recognize a chair if it is not in its original context. A regular chair versus a
chair made of computers. It just takes longer to figure it out.
Related concepts are stored closely together in a memory. Ie Birds at the center of the network & then
make connections from there.....birds, canaries, animals, dogs, flying, wings, airplanes, etc. It is easier for