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Midterm

PSYB10 Midterm Review

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Semester
Fall

Description
Psyb10 midterm study sheet Overview and methods of social psychology Definition of social psychology: Uses scientific methods to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of other human beings. ABCs of psychology = Thoughts, Feelings, Behaviors... Affect: emotions, feelings, mood Behavior: verbal & nonverbal action Cognition: thought, sensation, perception, processing, memory Video: 2 confusion monkeys who love grapes but dont mind cucumbers. They each receive tokens & can see what the other monkey is getting.... Basically, when both receive grape/cucumber, all is happy. When one gets a grape & the other gets a cucumber, the one getting a cucumber wont accept it because he does not like the value of the cucumber when compared to the grape. -Methods in Social Psych: Social psychological toolkit & Research & Statistical Methods - Social Psych Toolkit: Self-report surveys, Reaction time tasks, priming, nonverbal/verbal behaviour & neuroscience & psychophysiology Self-report: pencil & paper, computer, interview Reaction Time Tasks: VERY common, especially in social cognition. Sit infront of computer & press buttons to see the speed you can do certain tasks. This came from the late 1800s when a Dutch psychologists figured out that a harder task will lead to a longer time. Ie dividing versus adding. The longer time spent concepts are more distantly attached. Obtained through video/audio, computer... Priming: Try to elicit a mood in a person, or create a certain concept in ones mind. Can be subliminal (something you wont see) or can be explicit (flashing the fearful ladies face at a person & expecting the person to feel fear) Nonverbal/ Verbal: Behavior is a hallmark in social psychology. The man has a complex facial reaction going on & it can be obtained in many ways; video (good way thanks to rewinding), audio recording, & close observation (1-way mirror) but this can be imprecise because you can not rewind & go back to it like you can with video. Neuroscience: 3 main things used: fMRI (measures brain activity), brain-damaged patients (ie certain neurological disorder; accident in motorcycle accident & you lose use of your frontal cortex... people loose their basic functioning because they lose use of their functions & can not differentiate cues given to them by people. Their view of the social world is changed.) & third, EEG... Psychophysiology: you can put a bunch of electrodes on people, or have them drool & then look at stress responses. Plain Taboo. Stress hormones & sex hormones are seen in saliva.. Research Statistical Methods Hypothetico deductive method: have a hypothesis & deduce it ...revise it aswell. But to create your hypothesis, you must go through the 5 steps: Examine past knowledge/research, form a theory, form an observational hypothesis (dont just study anger in broad terms, focus on one thing such as facial reaction when angry), test hypothesis, revise theory Variable types: Dependent variable (DV) = outcome Independent variable (IV) = predictor; only implies causality when it is manipulated! Otherwise only establishes a relationship. 3 designs: Correlational, Quasi-experimental, experimental Correlational: 2 DV variables. It is looking for a general relationship between the 2 variables. There is no experimental manipulation, but there should be random sampling. Ie People who eat icecream more drown more. But you cant imply causation, you can only say they are related as they appear at the same time. Designs include correlation, regression, or Bayesian If you have a correlation, you can say the 2 predict each other or relate, but you CAN NOT say one causes the other (Correlation does not imply causation) Quasi-Experimental: You have an ID & a DV, but your IV is not manipulated. You only have KNOWN GROUPS which is something like gender. It is called quasi because we do not manipulate the variable. This includes ethnicity or gender because we dont assign these. You can only say they relate to each other (males & females are the same in this or that area..) There is a control group because you have to compare it. & this is done through stratified random sampling. Video on theory of mind studies (Age group 3 & 5): When a 3 yr old sees that there are pencils in an m&m package & is asked what would your dad think is inside this? He would say pencils. But a 5yr old would say m&ms because he knows his dad doesnt know about the pencils inside the m&ms package. Proper interpretation is covariance & prediction, but NO CAUSALITY. You can discuss differences b/w groups & suggest why these relations happen, but you cant imply causality. Experimental Designs: Manipulated IV & random assignment to the conditions. & there must be a control group MDMA (aka ecsttacy) where ppl generally believe that ecstasy makes you more intact with other people. This was tested by giving people MDMA & giving others a placebo (to increase your heart rate). The 6 basic faces were looked at (on slides) & people had to judge what emotions the faces were expressing. He found ppl were not more accurate when judging the faces when on MDMA . they were less accurate when compared to the control group when judging anger. Therefore it shows that ecstasy keeps ppl wanting to relate more to others by judging them un-angry. Analysed through regression, ANOVA, & Bayesian. Big difference: IV causes DV Social cognition Social Cognition: THINKING about social cognition Ie dropping a non-social object (a pen) & judging what would happen relative to its weight & how it looks. A social object is different. If prof was to drop a person, she wouldnt be able to predict what would happen because the person will react differently judging by their cognitive structure. Theres automatic & controlled cognition. Controlled is when theres a test infront of you & you think you must focus so you do. Automatic cognition would be when you think about nurses when you think about doctors. You dont intentionally think about nurses but it just comes up in your mind because the 2 are related. The Basics: Perception becoming aware of something in the senses; perceiving something in the world. This includes pre-attentive processes. A complex scene is anything with a lot of visual objects (ie a lecture hall) Rapid is less than 250 milseconds. Essential pre-attentive processes includes when there is a complex room but your focus is only on the gun in one persons hand. Gaze detection: You normally look straight at the face that is looking at you. ..after you perceive something, you have to ENCODE it. Encoding: selecting info from the environment & storing it in memory. You wont remember everything in a scene, but mostly the things you focused on the most. Attention(Selective perceptio)is an important aspect because we tend to give the most attention to people who are higher in status. Example of visual attention The video of the people passing the ball back & forth to people & then a big black thing walks by. People dont notice this because they pay most attention to the ball being passed back & forth. It is rather intelligent not to notice the gorilla because it shows how strong your focused attention is. Schemas: set of expectations; mental structures used to organize knowledge about the social world around themes and objects. This is efficient & is guided by attention & memory, which means you will only pay attention to what you want to. Bias against schema incongruent information; this is when you know something but since it doesnt fit in with your schema, you ignore it. Self-fulfilling Prophecy: what you expect is not only what you get, but also what you create about other people in the world. An example is SNYDER, TANKE, & BERSCHEID. They looked at how attractiveness shapes our interactions with other people. First, they developed stimuli. Looked for attractive & unattractive women. Found 20 females & took their pics then found 20males & asked them how they rated the females. Then they took the top 4 most and last 4 least attractive and kept these. They then got the males to come in and gave them a picturerdf the female they would interact with over the phone for 10minutes. Convos were recorded. Then a 3 group of females were asked to come in & listen to the conversations & they had to rate the conversation. *Judges were unaware of the study and therefore there was no bias from them. Results shows: Men rated unattractive females as less social, less friendly, etc. The females who lastly heard the conversations & had to rate it: rated that unattractive females were unsociable, awkward, & serious versus the attractive females who were seen as sociable, poised, and humorous. THIS WAS ALSO THE SAME PERCEPTION THE MALE JUDGES HAD WHEN LISTENING TO THE CONVERSATIONS! This basically shows the importance of schemas & how it creates in other people what we expect of them. Storage/ Knowledge Representation: Ellener Rosch (one of the most influential psychologists) had many findings in the 70s. She taught us how we think & categorize. She argued that we categorize things based on prototypes. Before, humans thought we categorized things differently & based on rules. Prototype Theory of Categorization. Ie it is harder for someone to recognize a chair if it is not in its original context. A regular chair versus a chair made of computers. It just takes longer to figure it out. Semantic Network: Related concepts are stored closely together in a memory. Ie Birds at the center of the network & then make connections from there.....birds, canaries, animals, dogs, flying, wings, airplanes, etc. It is easier for
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