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Social Psychology: Midterm Notes

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Elizabeth Paige-Gould; Social Psychology PSYB10- Midterm Topic Review Sheet Overview and Methods of Social Psychology Social psychology is a discipline that uses scientific methods to study social influence, social perception and social interaction. Learn more about the history of social psychology and what makes it different from other disciplines. Affect Emotions, feelings, and mood Behaviour Verbal and nonverbal action Cognition Thought, sensation, perception, processing and memory History: The discipline of social psychology began in the United States at the dawn of the 20th century. The first published study in this area was an experiment in 1898 by Norman Triplett on the phenomenon of social facilitation. During the 1930s, many Gestalt psychologists, most notably Kurt Lewin, fled to the United States from Nazi Germany. They were instrumental in developing the field as something separate from the behavioral and psychoanalytic schools that were dominant during that time, and social psychology has always maintained the legacy of their interests in perception and cognition. Attitudes and small group phenomena were the most commonly studied topics in this era. Hypothetico-deductive Method: 1. Examine past knowledge/research 2. Form a theory 3. Operationalize the theory into a hypothesis 4. Test hypothesis 5. Revise theory Dependent Variable = DV Outcome Independent Variable = IV Predictor (Only implies causation when it is manipulated) Causal Inference based on research design; is essentially when one comes to believe certain facts based upon certain characteristics of evidence. Research Design Types: Correlational Designs: Focus on the covariance and predictions, there is no causality Quasi-Experimental designs: Focuses on a predictor and an outcome. The IV (Known groups) isnt manipulated. It follows stratified random sampling, and uses a comparison/ control group. Experimental Designs: Use manipulated IVs, Random assignment to condition, and a comparison and control group. Internal Validity: Is the validity of causal inferences in scientific studies, usually based on the experiments as experiment validity. 1Elizabeth Paige-Gould; Social Psychology External Validity: The validity of generalized causal inferences in scientific studies, usually based on the experiments as experiment validity. Ethical Issues in Psychology: Informed Consent: A term used to describe the level of consent at which a person gives meets the minimum standards of proper consent. As a literal matter, in the absence of fraud it is redundant. Informed consent plays an issue in psychology because of the subjects willingness to participate in a study greatly weighs down on the researchers ability to perform the study. Deception: A researcher must inform their subject exactly about what they are about to perform within the study. Deception is one which allows the researcher to conduct the study in a way in which the subject is aware yet still unsuspecting about what theyre about to do. Debriefing: Essentially what the researcher demands of his/her subject before the experiment takes place. Social Cognition Social cognition is the study of how people process social information, especially its encoding, storage, retrieval, and application to social situations. Social objects essentially anything which takes part in social interaction or cognition. Automatic thinking is subconscious, unintentional, involuntary and effortless thoughts. (Used as a second nature to most habits we develop over time) Controlled thinking is different from automatic thinking in term
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