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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lecture 1 ABCs of psychologyThoughts Feelings Behaviors Affect emotions feelings mood Behavior verbalnonverbal action Cognition thought sensation perception processing memory Video 2 confusion monkeys who love grapes but dont mind cucumbers They each receive tokenscan see what the other monkey is getting Basically when both receive grapecucumber all is happy When one gets a grapethe other gets a cucumber the one getting a cucumber wont accept it because he does not like the value of the cucumber when compared to the grape Lecture 02 Methods in Social Psych Social psychological toolkitResearchStatistical MethodsSocial Psych Toolkit Selfreport surveys Reaction time tasks priming nonverbalverbal behaviourneurosciencepsychophysiology Selfreport pencilpaper computer interview Reaction Time Tasks VERY common especially in social cognition Sit infront of computerpress buttons to see the speed you can do certain tasks This came from the late 1800s when a Dutch psychologists figured out that a harder task will lead to a longer time Ie dividing versus adding The longer time spentconcepts are more distantly attached Obtained through videoaudio computer Priming Try to elicit a mood in a person or create a certain concept in ones mind Can be subliminal something you wont see or can be explicit flashing the fearful ladies face at a personexpecting the person to feel fear Nonverbal Verbal Behavior is a hallmark in social psychology Theman has a complex facial reaction going onit can be obtained in many ways video good way thanks to rewinding audio recordingclose observation 1way mirror but this can be imprecise because you can not rewindgo back to it like you can with video Neuroscience 3 main things used fMRI measures brain activity braindamaged patients ie certain neurological disorder accident in motorcycle accidentyou lose use of your frontal cortex people loose their basic functioning because they lose use of their functionscan not differentiate cues given to them by people Their view of the social world is changedthird EEG Psychophysiology you can put a bunch of electrodes on people or have them droolthen look at stress responses Plain Taboo Stress hormonessex hormones are seen in saliva ResearchStatistical Methods Hypothetico deductive method have a hypothesisdeduce it revise it aswell But to create your hypothesis you must go through the 5 steps Examine past knowledgeresearch form a theory form an observational hypothesis dont just study anger in broad terms focus on one thing such as facial reaction when angry test hypothesis revise theory Variable typesDependent variable DVoutcome Independent variable IVpredictor only implies causality when it is manipulated Otherwise only establishes a relationship 3 designs Correlational Quasiexperimental experimental Correlational 2 DV variables It is looking for a general relationship between the 2 variables There is no experimental manipulation but there should be random sampling Ie People who eat icecream more drown more But you cant imply causation you can only say they are related as they appear at the same time Designs include correlation regression or Bayesian If you have a correlation you can say the 2 predict each other or relate but you CAN NOT say one causes the other Correlation does not imply causation QuasiExperimental You have an IDa DV but your IV is not manipulated You only have KNOWN GROUPS which is something like gender It is called quasi because we do not manipulate the variable This includes ethnicity or gender because we dont assign these You can only say they relate to each other malesfemales are the same in this or that area There is a control group because you have to compare itthis is done through stratified random sampling Video on theory of mind studies Age group 35 When a 3 yr old sees that there are pencils in an mm packageis asked what would your dad think is inside this He would say pencils But a 5yr old would say mms because he knows his dad doesnt know about the pencils inside the mms package Proper interpretation is covarianceprediction but NO CAUSALITY You can discuss differences bw groupssuggest why these relations happen but you cant imply causality Experimental Designs Manipulated IVrandom assignment to the conditionsthere must be a control group MDMA aka ecsttacy where ppl generally believe that ecstasy makes you more intact with other people This was tested by giving people MDMAgiving others a placebo to increase your heart rate The 6 basic faces were looked at on slidespeople had to judge what emotions the faces were expressing He found ppl were not more accurate when judging the faces when on MDMAthey were less accurate when compared to the control group when judging anger Therefore it shows that ecstasy keeps ppl wanting to relate more to others by judging them unangry Analysed through regression ANOVABayesian Big difference IV causes DV Social Cognition THINKING about social cognition Ie dropping a nonsocial object a penjudging what would happen relative to its weighthow it looks A social object is different If prof was to drop a person she wouldnt be able to predict what would happen because the person will react differently judging by their cognitive structure Theres automaticcontrolled cognition Controlled is when theres a test infront of youyou think you must focus so you do Automatic cognition would be when you think about nurses when you think about doctors You dont intentionally think about nurses but it just comes up in your mind because the 2 are related The BasicsPerceptionbecoming aware of something in the senses perceiving something in the worldThis includes preattentive processes A complex scene is anything with a lot of visual objects ie a lecture hall Rapid is less than 250 milsecondsEssential preattentive processes includes when there is a complex room but your focus is only on the gun in one persons hand Gaze detection You normally look straight at the face that is looking at you after you perceive something you have to ENCODE it Encoding selecting info from the environmentstoring it in memory You wont remember everything in a scene but mostly the things you focused on the most Attention is an important aspect because we tend to give the most attention to people who are higher in status The video of the people passing the ball backforth to peoplethen a big black thing walks by People dont notice this because they pay most attention to the ball being passed backforth It is rather intelligent not to notice the gorilla because it shows how strong your focused attention is
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