Chapter 1 Quiz
1. In a debate about the importance of nature versus nurture, James Mark Baldwin would say that
a) it is impossible to determine whether nature or nurture is more important in development.
b) the environment and the child’s own characteristics are equally vital to development.
c) biological factors, such as intelligence, determine the outcome of development.
d) environmental influences are the most crucial factors in a child’s development.
2. John Locke viewed the child as
a) a blank slate.
b) born with an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth.
c) naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong.
d) a noble savage.
3. In the dynamic systems perspective, what does it mean when we say a system is dynamic?
a) It is all-encompassing.
b) It is complex.
c) It is integrated.
d) It is always in motion.
4. Dr. Tu's flowchart tracks the steps children use to enter an ongoing play group. Dr. Tu is using the __________ approach.
a) behavior modification
5. Adults withinAfrica’s !Kung society rarely interact with infants while they are exploring objects independently. However, they become highly vocal when a baby offers
an object to another person because
a) they do not believe that children should play with natural objects, such as twigs and rocks.
b) the !Kung members are forbidden to exchange objects.
c) they consider objects as things to be possessed, rather than shared.
d) their culture emphasizes interpersonal, rather than physical, aspects of existence.
6. !Kung children are taught the importance of __________ from a very young age.
b) survival instincts
d) saving resources
7. Dynamic systems researchers attempt to find out how children attain new levels of organization by studying their behavior
a) when interacting with peers.
b) when collaborating with adults.
c) while they are in transition.
d) while they are in a state of disequilibrium.
8. Ruby’s father taught her to tie her shoes by giving her detailed instructions. Now when Ruby ties her shoes by herself, she repeats these instructions aloud.According to
__________, Ruby has internalized her father’s instructions to guide her own thoughts and help acquire new skills.
a) the dynamic systems approach
b) Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory
c) Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory
d) Bronfenbrenner’s model
9. __________ is linked to many positive outcomes, including higher academic achievement, fewer behavior problems, and a reduced risk of drug and alcohol use.
a) Brain plasticity
b) Frequency of shared family meals
c) High socioeconomic status
d) Enrichment during the sensitive period
10. Professor Santiago regards child development as mostly a discontinuous process. Professor Santiago's belief is consistent with
a) cognitive-developmental theory.
b) social learning theory.
c) the information-processing approach.
11. By stating that children are influenced by nature, theorists mean that __________ influences development.
b) the social world
c) the physical world
d) exposure to pleasant, natural surroundings
12. Leonard and his best friendAnthony grew up in a run-down, crime-ridden, inner-city neighborhood. By age 10, each had experienced years of family conflict. Both
dropped out of high school and had run-ins with the law. However, at age 30, Leonard is a police officer and Anthony is in prison. Leonard illustrates the concept of
a) continuous development.
b) discontinuous development.