Chapter 11 Quiz
1. Most children have formed basic concepts of race and ethnicity by age _______, in that they can identify pictures, dolls, and people as “black” or “white.”
a) 3 or 4
b) 5 or 6
c) 7 or 8
d) 9 or 10
2. In U.S. schools today, __________ students are the most ethnically isolated group, with about _____ percent of their school’s student body being the same race.
a) black; 70
b) black; 95
c) Hispanic; 85
d) white; 80
3. Children, who are generally able to absorb prevailing societal attitudes, tend to
a) refrain from making status assessments when they have ambiguous information.
b) ignore perceptually distinct attributes in making social group classifications.
c) have a difficult time distinguishing rich from poor on the basis of physical characteristics.
d) associate power and privilege with white people and poverty and inferior status with people of color.
4. Research on bias and prejudice among young children in diverse Western nations revealed that
a) white children almost always discriminated against other racial groups, regardless of how much contact they had with them.
b) ethnic minority children showed a pattern of out-group favoritism.
c) out-group prejudice emerges before in-group favoritism.
d) ethnic minority children showed a pattern of in-group favoritism.
5. While lining up for recess, six-year-old Nicole unintentionally bumps into her classmate, Cynthia. Cynthia responds by punching Nicole in the arm. Cynthia’s reaction
suggests that she
a) attends selectively to social cues.
b) is afraid of Nicole.
c) has unbiased social expectations.
d) does not know the difference between right and wrong.
6. During the early school years, social problem solving
a) is deficient in most children.
b) is directed exclusively toward the child’s own needs rather than toward the mutual needs of the self and others.
c) profoundly affects peer relations.
d) is unrelated to socially competent behavior.
7. When asked which college she was considering, Laila responded, “I have looked at several schools, but I do not think it makes much difference which one I choose.”
Laila is demonstrating characteristics of identity
8. In many immigrant families from collectivist cultures, adolescents’commitment to obeying their parents and fulfilling family obligations lessens the longer the family
has been in the immigrant-receiving country, which induces
a) a state of moratorium.
b) a bicultural identity.
c) an identity crisis.
d) acculturative stress.
9. The suicide rate
a) peaks at adolescence.
b) increases over the lifespan.
c) is higher among girls than boys.
d) is similar across all industrialized nations.
10. Research shows that
a) long-term foreclosure and diffusion are psychologically healthy routes to a mature self-definition.
b) identity-achieved individuals display a dogmatic, inflexible cognitive style.
c) adolescents in foreclosure resemble identity-achieved individuals in using an active, information-gathering cognitive style.
d) identity achievement and moratorium are psychologically healthy routes to a mature self-definition.
11. Mounting evidence reveals that children with autism have
a) advanced language skills.
b) smaller-than-average brains.
c) an advanced theory of mind.
d) a deficient theory of mind.
12. Herbert Mead suggested that a psychological self, called the _________, emerges when children begin to see themselves as others see the child.
a) generalized other
b) diffused individual
c) bicultural individual
d) categorical other
13. Children first sense that they are physically distinct from their surroundings
a) at birth. b) between 4 and 6 months.