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PSYB30 Midterm Notes (Chapter 1-5)

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Connie Boudens

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PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES Chapter 1: Who Am I? Understanding the Building Blocks of Personality - Early personality psychologists mused that there are aspects of personality universal to all people, shared by similar people, and completely unique to individuals - There is a universal desire for actualization (be who we are meant to be) - Though we share same mechanisms, characteristics and experiences, the way the building blocks form together makes each of us unique. - Personality Psychology: The scientific study of what makes us who we are (identifying similarity and differences and explains how they are that way) - The individual is more than a sum of its parts - To understand personality we need to understand: o Traits: person’s typical way of thinking, feeling and acting in various situations at different times o Genetics: study of how genes and environment affect personality and behaviour o Neuroscience: study of how our brain and nervous system affects personality (some of this study suggest that extroversion and neuroticism and impulsivity related to physiological and neurological differences at birth) o Self and Identity: our own sense of who we are (self-concept, self-esteem ,social identity) o Intrapsychic Foundations of Personality: Looking into our own conscious and unconscious thoughts and feelings that make up our personality o Regulation and Motivation: Self Determination Theory: how people adjust their responses to the environment; self determination theory says when people feel free to choose, are competent, and connected to people around them they will be motivated and self-directed for the task at hand. o Cognitive Foundations: how people perceive and think about info about themselves and the world. - Belmont Report: o Respect for Persons: allowing people to choose to participate or not o Beneficence: do no harm to participant o Justice: benefits and burdens of research participants must be shared equally among potential populations - Common Rule: institutions must establish and maintain an Institutional Review Board Chapter 2: Personality Trait: A Good Theory - Observers in a room often very accurate when guessing the personality of who lives there - Temporary states, attitudes and physical attributes not considered traits - Traits are non physical - Some psychologists view traits as descriptive summaries of behaviour; Others view them as internal, causal properties (capacity that is present even when not being expressed) - Idiographic Approach: goal to understand the personality of a single individual with all their quirks or idiosyncrasies and characteristics that make them unique. - Nomothetic Approach: goal to discover universals that can apply to everyone PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES - The Great Nomothetic Search for Human Universals: search for the right number of universal traits and how we should organize them - Allport started battle between nomothetic and idiographic approaches; but argued that individuality cannot be studied by science - Eysenck – hypothesized human personality to be organized in hierarchy (pyramid) [type level  trait level  habitual Response  Specific Response - Allport – central traits (main describers of you); secondary traits (less consistently displayed); cardinal traits (single trait that dominates personality; unusual) - Theoretical Approach- When personality psychologists start with a theory or even common wisdom about human personality o Machiavelianism = Manipulativeness o Carl Jung = hypothesized that people differ in how they evaluate info (thinking type and feeling type) o Freud = theory that problems weaning or toilet training later affect adult personality - Lexical Approach: Explores a language and identifies number of synonyms that describe personality o If the word occurs many times it is important to the culture; if the same trait is found across many different languages it may qualify as universal - Factor Analysis: statistical technique that identifies meaningful underlying structure among variables o Eignvalue: variance in answers between participants o Factor Loadings: how strongly each question fits a given factor - Allport used lexical analysis to identify 4504 trait terms Cattell used factor analysis on them to get 16 Others built on that to get the Big 5 o Personality Research Form; California Q-Set, and Myer-Briggs Type Indicator all include the 5 factors - Eysenck – convinced there were fundamental differences between people; so he described personality types in terms of physical or biological differences o Identified broad dimensions of personality: Psychoticism (tough- minded/anticsocial), Extraversion (outgoing), Neuroticism (negative emotionality and reactivity) o Also identified narrow traits associated with each factor. o One problem is most people feel important traits are missing - Five Factor Model: (NEO-PI-R: Each factor made up of 6 facets) o Openness, o Conscientiousness, (Degree of organization (Physical and Mental)) o Extraversion - Introversion, (How one energetically engages with social world) o Agreeableness, (Quality of interpersonal relationships) o Neuroticism – Emotional Stability(how well someone adjusts to slings and arrows of daily life) - One Factor Solution: General Personality Factor o According to Musek this factor includes all positive aspects of the five o GPF Encompasses two factors of Alpha (emotional stability to get along with others) and Beta (flexibility to deal with change, challenges and demands) PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES - Six and Seven Factors: o HEXACO (Honesty, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience) o Seven Factor similar to Big 5 but added Negative Valence and Positive Valence - Hippocrates = 4 humours (Melancholic, Choleric, Sanguine, Phlegmatic) - Some suggest the five factors are aspects of a two factor solution o Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness = Alpha o Openness and Extraversion = Beta Chapter 3: Personality Traits: Practical Matters - Early studies of Big Five included intelligence in Openness, others have it loaded on Conscientiousness - Spiritual Transcendence: the ability of individuals to stand outside their immediate sense of time and place to view life from a larger more objective perspective o Predicts with personality: locus of control for health issues, vulnerability to stress, responsiveness, perceived social support, prosocial behaviour, sexual attitudes - Schmitt and Buss found 7 sexuality factors: Sexual Attractiveness; Relationship Exclusivity, Gender Orientation; Sexual Restraint; Erotophillic Disposition; Emotional Investment; Sexual Orientation. o These overlap with 80% of the big 5; not just separate factors - Philotimo (Greek): polite, generous, responsible, respectful, strong sense of honor - Filial Piety (Chinese): caring mental and physical well-being of elderly parents; continuing family line, bringing honor to family - Amae (Japanese): strong social obligation to take care of others - Questionnaires of Big 5 replicate across cultures - Adjectival measures reveal variations of CEAN but not O in different cultures - Some cultures need more than 5 Factors - China has a collectivistic culture - 10 Clusters unique to China o Harmony, Ren Qing, Modernization, Thrift, Ah-Q Mentality, Graciousness, Verasciousness-Slickness, Face, Family Orientations, Somatization o Factor Analysis on this revealed the 5 factors plus Interpersonal Relatedness - LOST Data = Life, Observation, Self-Report, Test - Presidents are more extraverted, less openness, less agreeable; more conscientious, more emotionally open, lower on psychological liberalism, morality and modesty. - Music Preference: o O = Reflective and Complex (blues, folk, classical, jazz) Intense and Rebelious (Alternative, Metal, Rock) Upbeat and Unconventional (Country, Religious, Pop) o C = Upbeat and Conventional o E = Upbeat and Conventional; Energetic and Rhythmic (Funk, Hiphop, Soul) o A = Upbeat and Conventional; Energetic and o N= Reflective and Complex - Personality Coherence = when underlying trait stays same but the way its expressed changes PSYB30 - PERSONALITY MIDTERM NOTES - Peak of personality consistency is around age 50 - Meta-Analysis = statistical summary of effects from 152 longitudinal studies - People become more assertive, warm, self confident, agreeable, conscient
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