Final Exam Terms6&7.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Francisco Villegas

Final Exam Terms Chapter 6-Genetics  Genotypes; specific gene combinations  Behavioral genetics; the study of the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in personality and behavior  Nature and Nurture Transact o Can work together, apart, or can influence each other  Phenotype= how genetic makeup is expressed o Genotype + Environment + Gene-environment correlation + Gene-Environment interaction  Gene-environment correlation; if people change environments and environments change people  Happens when a genotype responds differently to an environment  Gene-Environment Interaction; combination of nature and nurture  Occurs when a genotype is exposed differently to an environment  People respond differently to the same environment because of different genetic make-up.  Heritability; the inheritance of a particular trait in a particular population at a particular time  Environmentality; estimates the extent to which observed individual differences can be traced in any way to individual differences in environment (nutrition)  Shared environment; includes aspects of the family environment that are generally the same for all the children in the household  Non-shared environment; experiences that relatives have which make them different from one another  Equal environments assumption; applies only to similar treatment that is related to specific characteristic under study.  Assumption of representativeness; double-the-difference formula also assumes that twins are typical for the population  Epigenetics; means by which the environment fundamentally changes human functioning  Gene; sequence of DNA o Exons; coding regions o Introns; non-coding regions  Dialectic; a way of thinking in which contradictions are seen to be part of a higher truth  Passive genotype-environment correlation; when the children did nothing to cause their environment to provide these resources  Reactive genotype-environment correlation; parents respond to something in the child  Active genotype-environment correlation; parents provide genes and environment and the child choses  Positive genotype-environment correlation; conditions were favourable for developing a certain characteristic  Negative genotype-environment correlation; people with high level of a certain characteristic find themselves in an environment for low value for that characteristic Chapter 7  central nervous system; includes the brain and the spinal chord  peripheral nervous system: o somatic nervous system; controls movements of the muscles o autonomic nervous system; regulates organs, cardiac muscles, glands (responds to arousing events)  sympathetic division; mobilizes energy (fight or flight)  parasympathetic division; supports systems that replenish the body’s energy stores (saliva)  Brain is protected by bath of cerebrospinal fluid that cushions the brain and also flows through spaces in the brain called ventricles  galvanic skin response; measure of skin conductance or how quickly a slight electrical current passes through two points in the skin (measures sweating)  Electromyography; estimates the electrical impulses o the muscles during contraction and relaxation. (measures muscle activity)  computerized tomography; (CT) takes high resolution x-ray picture of the brain o Also called : computer axial tomography (CAT SCAN)  magnetic resonance imaging; (MRI) radio frequency waves are used instead of x-rays o A strong magnetic field causes the nuclei of some atoms to resonate. Then radio frequency waves are used to detect the activity of these atoms. Because hydrogen atoms are present in all tissues but in varying concentration the pattern of resonance formed by the hydrogen atoms forms a multidimensional
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