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Connie Boudens

CH. 10 lecture 10 THE COGNITIVE APPROACH (RELEVANT) CELL BIOLOGY BASICS Cell nucleus contains DNA • Carries genetic information • Controls growth and development – determines what someone will look like i.e. how tall and aspects of their personality • 23 pairs of chromosomes - DNA is divided into various chromosomes - In b/w the sides of the latter of the double helix are the rungs - Rungs are made up of bases – usually referred to by a single letter and it’s the ordering of the letters that make up the genetic code • One gene = _______________? - Gene is a segment of the DNA - Can be 100 of the rungs of the letter to several million GENE EXPRESSION: GENOTYPE VS PHENOTYPE • Genotype = specific genetic makeup • Don’t see everything in the genotype • Comes from both parents • Recessive and dominant genes - i.e. brown eyes = BB or Bb • discovered that there is more than one genotype for eye colour • Gregor Mendel and cross pollination experiment (peas and flowers) / he discovered dominant and recessive traits • Phenotype = how genetic makeup is expressed FORMS OF GENE EXPRESSION • Dominant-recessive - one dominates - aka Mendelian inheritance • Co-dominance and incomplete dominance - neither dominant, or one dominant - doesn’t hide effects of other o Co-dominance: both expressed i.e. calico cat, blood type = AB, blood type O is recessive o Incomplete dominance: combination expressed i.e. gray cat o Still have two alleles - Polygenic – more than one pair of alleles or genes that are responsible for that trait o Most personality traits o Many pairs of alleles create expression o i.e. skin colour ROLE OF ENVIRONMENT Phenotype • =Genotype + environment + gene-environment interaction + gene-environment correlation GENOTYPE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS • Impact of environment depends on genotype - Two people can encounter the same environmental factors but they don’t react in the same b/c of their genotype GENOTYPE-ENVIRONMENT CORRELATION • Differential exposure of individuals with different genotypes to different environments • 3 ways it can work: 1. Passive: Parents provide both genes and environment to children. - Child’s verbal ability and the number of books in home 1. Reactive / evocative: Parents (or others) respond to children depending on the genotype - Baby’s liking for cuddling and mother’s cuddling behavior - Child is evoking a certain reaction in others - People respond to child differently depending on the genotype 1 CH. 10 lecture 10 THE COGNITIVE APPROACH 2. Active: Person with particular genotype seeks out environment - High sensation seekers expose themselves to risky environments - Choose own elements of environment - i.e. high-sensation seekers like riskier environments • Passive decreases with age, active increases • Harder to separate genotype and environment • People are exposed to different environments depending on their genotype • Genotype-environment correlations can be positive or negative Behavioural Genetics • Attempt to determine % of individual differences in a trait due to genetic and % due to environment - Anything behavioural in people 99.9% is some combo of genetics and the environment • Determine the ways genes and environment interacts and correlate - The outcomes that cause individual differences • Determine what relevant environmental factors are • Heritability : amount of individual difference in trait due to genetic differences - Can be accounted for by differences in genes • Environmentality extent to which individual differences are due to environmental differences MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT HERITABILITY • Heritability CANNOT be applied to single individual - Only applies to group-level variation - Talking about populations - Only relevant to large groups • Heritability NOT constant or immutable - Environment homogenous? – heritability higher - Environmental variations increase - heritability will be lower - Even highly heritable traits are modifiable by environment • Heritability NOT a precise statistic – think estimate - Sometimes the estimates range widely b/c different researchers use different methodologies and sample population BEHAVIORAL GENETICS METHODS 1. SELECTIVE BREEDING • Can only occur if a desired trait is heritable • Done using animals - Ex: depressed mice 2. FAMILY STUDIES • Correlates degree of genetic overlap among family members with similarity in trait • If trait is highly heritable, those more closely related should be more similar • Problem: Members of a family share elements of the environment—confounds genetic with environmental influences • Thus, family studies never definitive - Best thing to do is to combine the results of different types of research that have different limitations so that the limitations balance each other out • i.e. sensation seeking, you give your measure of sensation seeking to people in a family and look for how closely related they are and how high they each rate on the trait, to show you whether or not sensation seeking is heritable 3. TWIN STUDIES • two assumptions of the twin method: - equal environments - representativeness o often have low birth weights and sometimes are not carried to term • Estimates heritability by seeing if MZ twins (exact same DNA) are more similar than DZ twins • Rates of similarity on traits vs. DZ and MZ twins 4. ADOPTION STUDIES 2 CH. 10 lecture 10 THE COGNITIVE APPROACH • Comparisons and the rate of overlap b/w genes • Positive correlations on traits between adopted kids and parents - environmental influence - Expect no genetically based correlation • Positive correlations between adopted children and genetic parents - genetic influence • Assumption adopted children and their (adoptive and genetic) parents are representative questionable - Don’t know if the people who put their children up for adoption and the children who get adopted are representative of the population • Problem of selective placement of adopted children • Design that combines strengths of twin and adoption studies = twins reared apart - Table 6.2 in txt book + SHARED ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES • Aspects of family environment generally same for all • Examples: # books in home, presence/absence of TV, quality and quantity of food, parents’ values/attitudes, school, church • If phenotype influenced solely by shared environment - MZ twins together : r = 1.00 - DZ twins together : r = 1.00 - Sibs together: r = 1.00 NONSHARED ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES • Things in t • he family that are different for different children • Ex: treated differently by parents, different friends, different teachers, some go to camp • If trait influenced solely by nonshared environmental influences - MZ twins together or apart: r=0 - Same for DZ twins and for sibs HERITABILITY OF TRAITS • For each FFM factor 35%-65% variability due to heritability • For most traits, environment has major influence, but influence is primarily from nonshared • For most traits, shared environment has little impact EXAMPLE: INTELLIGENCE • Texas Adoption Study (large, well controlled) - Time 1, children’s IQ significantly correlated with both bio mom(.23) and adoptive mom (.13) o Some correlation with environment - Time 2, children’s IQ significantly correlated only with bio mother (.26) o Environment no longer playing a role, mostly genetics o Might be b/c children are older, or might be the way the way IQ was measured OTHER RESEARCH ON INTELLIGENCE • Evidence from different sources • Near 0 correlations between biologically unrelated siblings - Influence of the environment is small • Twin data - MZ reared together r = .76 - MZ reared apart r = .77 o For MZ twins correlation of IQ scores are similar - DZ reared together r = .22 - DZ reared apart r = .32 o Moderate correlation and whether they were raised apart or together doesn’t make a difference o Correlation is smaller than the MZ twins • Intelligence and Personality Compared - Heritability higher for IQ than personality o Example: Correlations for MZ twins are higher for IQ (.76) than personality (.50) - Shared family environment not an important influence on either IQ or personality 3 CH. 10 lecture 10 THE COGNITIVE APPROACH EPIGENETICS • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AV8FM_d1Leo • Study of heritable changes in gene function that occuwithout change in DNA sequence • i.e. identical twins start off with the same DNA but are different - VIDEO 2 o Identical twins become different over time o Genes provide the instructions for the development of the body o The epigenome interacts with the DNA to activate or suppress particular genes o Epigenetic tag turn genes off or on changing the underlying genetic code o Epigenetic tags are erased from mom and dad’s chromosomes during the first day after fertilization o On some genes Some tags remain and these are known as imprinted genes o Each embryo has the same genome and epigenome o Each cell type takes unique epigenetic type o b/c they share the same environment there epigenomes are very similar but as they age they start to change o signals from the environment act on the twins epigenomes and silent different genes o diet i.e. is an environmental factor than can have an effect on the epigenome o differences in physical activity can also cause epigenetic differences in the twins o exposure to toxins and stress can influence the epigenome o by the time the twins are into adult hood there epigenomes are very different making each twin unique VIDEO 1 • The dark triad = Machiavellianism (behaviour that is directed at manipulating others), narcissism (entitlement to superiority), Psycopathy (low empathy) overlap • Unique personality constructs in themselves • Used behavioural genetic methodology • Try to establish that this cluster of traits hangs together but should be through of as separate from each other and whether they make individual contributions to behaviours • Didn’t think the NEO-PI-R captures the traits in the triad • Used behavioural genetics • SPI assess 10 traits that fall outside of the big five and they wanted to see if the dark triad fell into those 10 traits • Strong link b/t dark triad and SPI framework • Moderate influences of genetics and of the non-shared environment LECTURE 7 RELATIONSHIP OF PERSONALITY AND CHANGES IN: • bodily responses • brain structures – relative size of various parts of the brain to each other and the differences b/w people with certain personality types i.e. brain size areas in introverts and extraverts • brain activity • biochemical activity NERVOUS SYSTEM • CNS – central nervous system = brain and spinal • PNS – peripheral nervous system = autonomic and somatic nervous system - Somatic nervous system = afferent nerves and efferent nerves - Automatic nervous system – sympathetic division and parasympathetic division SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTM • Fight or flight system • Non-essential activities are dampened (GL/urinary) - i.e. heart rate increases so it can supply muscles with more oxygen - breathing is rapid and deep - skin becomes cold and sweaty 4 CH. 10 lecture 10 THE COGNITIVE APPROACH - pupils dilate - blood is diverted to skeletal muscles to enable more efficient movement - liver realises more glucose into the blood to supply energy to muscles • Parasympathetic is opposite BODILY RESPONSES: MEASURING ANS ACTIVITY • Heart rate • Body temp and blood flow • Skin conductance (GSR) – galvanic skin response – the moisture on your skin • Electromyography (EMG) – measure muscle movements • Brain Structure BRAIN STRUCTURE • Measures – static differences in relative size and weight and cell numbers of brain parts • Computerized tomography (CT) scan • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) • Methods for measuring brain structure during stimulation - Cortical stimulation – stimulating different parts of the brain using electrodes - EEG – electrode cap – looking at electrical activity in different parts in the brain - PET – individual is given a solution with low level of radioactivity and glucose and the areas in the brain that are the most active will be shown as using the most glucose - fMRI – activity in the brain during different things - TMS – transcranial magnetic stimulation – similar to cortical stimulation but skull doesn’t have to be opened / uses electrodes to disrupt different areas of the brain / alternative to electroconvulsive therapy BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY • Neurotransmitters: chemicals released by neurons to excite next neuron into action or inhibit it - Dopamine – related to energy, the feelings of pleasure, movement, learning and sensitivity to rewards - Serotonin – moods, SSRIs are drugs that regulate serotonin o Too little serotonin linked to depression - Norepinephrine and epinephrine are also considered stress hormones o Increases blood flow to muscles by increasing heart rate and blood pressure o are also considered stress hormones VIDEO • Helen fisher did a study on romantic love • Mate choice: looks, values and morals, childhood experience, background, religion • Personality: nurture and nature • Each neurotransmitter is related to a certain trait of what makes you attracted to someone • She put these traits of biology on match.com • No two people took the 56 question questionnaire the same way • Dopamine/estrogen = explorer/negotiator 1. Dopamine / Norepinephrine = explorers o Seek experiences - Sensation seeking o Independent / self-reliant o Exploration physical/mental o Impulsive o Idea generation – creativity * o Can also be susceptible to boredom, reckless, unreflective, manic, insincere o Word choices i.e. venture, energy 2. Serotonin = builders o Respectful o Cautious o Task-oriented o Social 5 CH. 10 lecture 10 THE COGNITIVE APPROACH o Calm and controlled o Orderly o Religiosity o “would you rather have interesting friends or loyal friends” – must have loyal friends o Can be close minded, rigid, unrealistic o Word choices i.e. family, values, morals o i.e. George Washington 3. testosterone system o see the structure of music o direct o decisive/bold o emotionally contained = more emotional fluidity o can also be uncompromising, inpatient, o word choices i.e. director, real o i.e. Steve jobs, Hilary Clinton 4. estrogen/oxytocin = negotiators o holistic o very imaginative o prosocial, trusting o everything means something o emotionally expressive o can also be indecisive, never stop thinking, hypersensitive, unforgotting o i.e. Oprah, bill Clinton • explorers want someone like themselves • when it comes to testosterone and estrogen opposites attract IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF PERSONALITY • Eysenck’s PEN model - Neuroticism, extraversion, Psychoticism - Developed it as biological theory - Evidence: o Cross-cultural universality o Consistency over time – indicates that they have a strong secure foundation o Heritability – suggest something genetic or biological - Introverts: greater cortical of arousal, specifically in ARAS o Chronically over aroused so they needed quieter environments and quiet context to retain homeostasis o Should be present in sleep  Only difference in response to moderate stimulation - Neuroticism = stability of SNS and vulnerability of negative emotions o HN: increase in heart rate in response to intense stimuli  Sensitive sympathetic nervous system o Introverts also have increase in heart rate in response to intense stimuli o HN, but not introverts: greater startle response to scary pictures o Overall, HN: more sensitive to (-) emotions, but not arousing situations as introverts are o No sufficient support for Eysenck’s hypothesis that N is related to SNS activity • reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) – different neurological systems in the brain- how your brain and nervous system react to stimuli determines personality - gray’s (1972, 1990) reinterpretation of Eysenck’s theory - looks at neurological systems o sets of neural networks, not a particular area in the brain  fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS) – associated with emotions of fears and organizes our reactions to aversive stimuli - fearfulness, avoidance  behavioural approach system (BAS)- optimism, impulsiveness  more willing to risk failure to gain a reward 6 CH. 10 lecture 10 THE COGNITIVE APPROACH  behavioural inhibition system (BIS)- resolve conflicts - until the conflict is solved the person will feel anxiety before resolution o individual difference in relative sensitivity of systems - key predictions of RST o how individual respons to rewards and how individual responds to learning. - i.e. prediction: brains of high and low BAS people respond differently to food o neural differences o BAS drives significantly accounted for signal differences in five brain related to visual food cues - LEARNING o Larsen et al., (2003). o Color naming task (moderate difficulty: average performance 50%)  Condition 1: Start with $10, punished for incorrect or slow responses - all ended with $5  Punishing correct responses  Condition 2: Start with $0, rewarded for correct and fast responses - all ended with $5  Those high in BAS did better in Condition 2 and those high in BIS did better in Condition 1 • temperament - not a theory, a way of summarizing thing found in biological theories - biological theories converge on 3 temperaments; temperament is: o Extraversion:  + Emotion, reward sensitivity, sociability, social rewards, approach  Not as concerned with the punishments  Interested in social awards, and approach stimuli rather than be feared by them o Neuroticism:  Negative emotion, anxiety, punishment sensitivity, withdrawal from stimuli instead of approach  More sensitivity to punishment o Impulsivity:  Psychoticism, sensation/ noveltyeeking, lack of constraint/conscientiousness/agreeableness - Tbl 7.2 in txt NEUROLOGICAL CORRELATES OF TEMPERAMENTS • Overview: - Difference b/w emotion expression and response to emotions o Specifically the reinforcement biological theory and response to different emotions o Can also have a difference in sensitivity to positive emotion  Extraverts: More (+) emotions, stronger reactions than I  High N : more (-) emotions, stronger reactions than L N - Positive and negative emotions are separate dimensions, not opposites CORRELATIONS OF CORTICAL THICKNESS • Introversion is correlated with thickness of three sections of the right (but not the left) cortex • Could be a function of the lowered social inhibition of extraverts (why the area is thinner) - Keep in mind that more grey matter does not equal functionality • HN correlated with less volume in left cortex, compared to LN • Central principle: mental phenomena can be described by interconnected networks of units • Neurons in the brain communicate with one another through elaborate networks • Connectionist networks (or artificial neural nets) are special computer programs that simulate biological networks • Mental processing seen as the dynamic and evolving LECTURE 8 WHY STUDY FREUD? • We all “speak” Freud – Freudian slips (say something when you mean something else) - When you say someone has a big ego – someone has an overblown sense of themselves - When someone is being anal – very concerned with maintenance 7 CH. 10 lecture 10 THE COGNITIVE APPROACH - Anything to do with dream analysis • Unconscious mine playing large role • Ongoing research and theorizing in the areas of psychodynamic psychology DRIVING FORCES IN PERSONALITY • Energy our life source comes from • Dual model of the instinct Freud proposes • Eros: the life instinct – satisfying our needs for hunger/thirst and our sexual needs - Energy driving this force is called libido - most commonly known as the sex energy - Eros – root word erotic • Thanatos: the death instinct - Consisted of aggressive forces, aggressive thoughts and actions - Desire of that portion of the personality to return the persona back to an inorganic place where they would have peace • Opposition of forces • Human existence: constant struggle b/w life and death instinct b/w individuals desires and society STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE PSYCHE • Tripartite model of the psyche: 1. Id: original and most primitive part  Animals had this as well  In humans everyone is born with it 2. Ego: realistic aspect – satisfies demands of id and keeps it in check  In touch with reality  Function is to make sure the demands of the id get met 3. Superego: internalization of society’s values – consists of conscious and ego-ideal  In different people different parts of the psyche will take control at different times DOES THE STRUCTURAL MODEL HOLD UP TO EMPIRICAL SUPPORT? • No evidence about proposed division of parts • Ideas of conflict and behavioral compromise among the different forces in each individual remain important DIVISIONS OF THE MIND: TOPOGRAPHIC MODEL • Human mind is like an iceberg – conscious is above water • Preconscious and unconscious are underwater - Things in the unconscious mind are inaccessible • Relationship of structural and topographic model - Superego – conscious and preconscious o No part that directly interacts with the id - Ego – partly conscious, preconscious and unconscious - Id – unconscious DEFENSE MECHANISMS • Anxiety caused by id-superego conflict - The id always wants something - Don’t becomes aware of it • Unconscious aspect of ego attempts to defend ego from this conflict - Ego defense mechanisms, the ego defending themselves • Repression: impulse prevented from reaching consciousness - Involves placing uncomfortable thoughts in inaccessible areas of the subconscious mine - I.e. a person who has repressed memories of abuse suffered as a child may later have difficulty forming relationships. • Suppression: pushing impulse down - Forcing the unwanted info out of our awareness • Sublimation: transforming id impulses to more acceptable one 8 CH. 10 lecture 10 THE COGNITIVE APPROACH - Taking the energy from the id that pushing you to do a particular thing and transforming it into something completely different - In Freudian theorizing it would be excelling at a particular thing for no apparent treason • Projection: ascribing undesirable impulses to others - Works by allowing the expression of the desire or impulse, but in a way that the ego cannot recognize, therefore reducing anxiety - i.e. if you have a strong dislike for someone, you might instead believe that he or she does not like you • Rationalization: giving a “rational” explanation for behavior - i.e. A person who is turned down for a date might rationalize the situation by saying they were not attracted to the other person anyway, or a student might blame a poor exam score on the instructor rather than his or her lack of preparation. - Rationalization not only prevents anxiety, it may also protect self-esteem and self-concept. When confronted by success or failure, people tend to attribute achievement to their own qualities and skills while failures are blamed on other people or outside forces • Intellectualization: uncoupling thought and feeling - Whatever your feeling b/c of a particular thing than you frame it in more intellectual terms - i.e. a person who has just been diagnosed with a terminal illness might focus on learning everything about the disease in order to avoid distress and remain distant from the reality of the situation • Undoing: attempts to nullify an action or thought • Reaction formation: converging an unacceptable impulse into its opposite - i.e. treating someone you strongly dislike in an excessively friendly manner in order to hide your true feelings - An Example of Reaction Formation: Homophobia o (By Adams, Henry E.; Wright, Lester W.; Lohr, Bethany A.Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol 105 (3), Aug 1996, 440-445)  A group of homophobic men and a group of non-homophobic men were exposed to sexually explicit erotic stimuli consisting of heterosexual, male homosexual and lesbian videotapes, and changes in penile circumference were monitored. Only the homophobic men showed an increase in penile erection to male homosexual stimuli. THEORY OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT • People pass through stages named for body part that is centre of sexual pleasure • Conflict/trauma results in fixation on this conflict STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT 1. Oral – fixation with the mouth - Oral receptive character: dependent, too trusting, not competent o Over indulged at this stage o Had everything handed to them, was excessively spoon fed - Oral aggressive character: envious, exploitative and manipulative o Wasn’t provided with the right sorts of nutrition and oral stimulation as a child 2. Anal – children can be compliant tor defiant with what their parents want them to do - Children are learning that they have control over their body and the caregivers - Anal retentive character: obstinacy, orderliness, rigidity, frugality o If they don’t learn how to get the control over their body the way they want or the get the reaction from their caregivers o Fixated at this stage b/c their caregivers were too strict - Anal expulsive character: emotional outbursts, disorganization, generosity, rebelliousness o Caregivers were too lax with their toilet training 3. Phallic - Phallic character in males: reaction to castration fear – reckless, bold behaviours o Oedipus complex – males want to sexually posses their mothers,, they want to kill their fathers, but they become afraid that the father will castrate them for falling in love with the mother and the only way they can figure a way around it is for the son to identify with the father – unconscious - Phallic character in females: continual striving for superiority over men o no way to solve the conflict for women, they have penis envy for the rest of their lives 9 CH. 10 lecture 10 THE COGNITIVE APPROACH 4. Latency stage 5. Genital stage - Genital character: mature and capable of adult intimacy if all stages are met successfully PROBLEMS WITH FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES • Latency Period - Freud: no significant development in id impulses of erogenous zone - Current thinking: important time of physical cognitive, social, and emotional development - Freud: all stages must be successfully handled to navigate adulthood – right amount of dependence and independence - Current thinking: no clear support for predicted outcomes if all stage challenges not met • Biased methods and sampling - Only looking at people who had come to him b/c they already had a psychological problem • Inadequate developmental proof for Oedipus complex • Gender differences in morality not supported - b/c females are unable to solve their oedipal crisis they can’t identify with their mothers and so they couldn’t incorporate the values of their mothers in their psyche so they ended up not being very morally strong • Personality fixed and unchanging - Freud said personality was fixed by the time the child was 5 • Focus on sex and aggression HOW DOES FREUD’S MODEL OF MIND AND MEMORY COMPARE TO CONTEMPORARY IDEAS • Evidence  correct: conscious and unconscious continuum correct: unconscious influence on conscious incorrect: unconscious not preoccupied with satisfying id impulses but helps to regulate many aspects of thought and behavior FREUD’S THEORIES TODAY: 5 POSTULATES • Unconscious processes remain central to the way that we function • Behavior compromise occurs among conflicting forces • Personality develops across the life span; early life it important - Things that happen in the first 5 y
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