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University of Toronto Scarborough
Connie Boudens

1 PERSONALITY FINAL EXAM (6-13) CHAPTER 6: GENETICS BASICS -Cell nucleus contains DNA Carries genetic information for all living things Controls growth and development 23 pairs of chromosomes –each cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes and all the DNA (divided into various chromosomes..all 23 chroms have all the DNA together) double helix ..ordering of the letters that constitute the genetic code (determines what ur gona develop into- genetic code diff for banana, panda, human-) One gene = 100-several millon of pares of basis/segment of the DNA ..ex 100 pairings of basis to several million runs on the latter Allele/element: two forms of gene from each parent Genotype = specific genetic makeup …DNA, can’t see ex. Eye colorrecessive Phenotype = how genetic makeup is expressed, gene variant (how either allele is expressed), can see ex eye colorblue eyes -Nature and nurture transact -genotype-environment interaction: enviro diff effect on ppl depending on their genetics -genotype-enviro correlation: ppl change enviro & enviro change ppl Differential exposure of individuals with different genotypes to different environments Passive: Parents provide both genes and environment to children. Ex Child’s verbal ability and the number of books in home Reactive / evocative: Parents respond to children depending on the genotype Ex Baby’s liking for cuddling and mother’s cuddling behavior Active: Person with particular genotype seeks out environment High sensation seekers expose themselves to risky environments Positive gene enviro correl: conditions favourable for developing Negative..: negative conditions Passive decreases with age, active increases Heritability (h2): observed estimate individual differences in some characteristic that’s from genetic differences (across a group/pop..not to a specific person [particular trait in a particular population at a particular time]..its not constant) Environmentality (e2): observed individual differences to individual differences in enviro *the greater h2 the less e2, greater e2 lesser h2 (higher h2=more equal enviro; less h2= more variable enviro) Forms of gene expression 1. Dominant-recessive/mendelian inheritance • one dominates ex if mom is O and dad is A then blood type is gonna be A because O is recessive 2. Codominance and incomplete dominance= neither dominant, or one dominant - doesn’t hide effects of other • Codominance: both expressed ex. Mom is blood type a, dad is type B, your blood type is gonna be AB ) • Incomplete dominance: combination expressed (ex red flower and white flower and offspring turns out to be pink) 2 3. Polygenic • Many pairs of alleles create expression…behaviour/traits is usually from polygenic , also skin color is polygenic Positional cloning: replace faulty genetic code w new & improved that’s matched w the ps genetics Behavioural Genetics: Area of research that Attempt to determine % of individual differences in a trait (phenotype) due to genetic and % due to environment Determine the ways genes and environment interact and correlate Determine what relevant env. factors are. METHODS 1. Selective Breeding Can only occur if a desired trait is heritable..look for animal and want particular trait to come out Done using animals ..hard to tell what theyre thinking tho (use mouse skillateen? To see something neurological [cant drug mouse b/c drug can affect neuro] so they open their brain) and they cant do this with humans tho so they use family/twin/adoption studies 2. Family Studies Correlates degree of genetic overlap among family members with similarity in trait If trait is highly heritable, those more closely related should be more similar Problem: Members of a family share elements of the environment—confounds genetic with environmental influences Thus, family studies never definitive (is it genetic or enviro?)…around limitation is twin studies 3. Twin Studies Estimates heritability by seeing if MZ (identitcal) twins are more similar than DZ aka fraternal twins If u see more correspondence In MZ than DZ then greater evidence for genetics Assumptions: equal environment assumption (not always the case) & representativeness (not very generalized to the population.. twins have lower birth rate and pre term b/c of that they aren’t representative to population) MZA twins: identical twins w separate environments Around limitation is to do adoption Video: dark triad, used neo P R as measurement and found wasn’t sufficient so they used the big 5 worked better; idea of cluster of personality trsits aka dark triad (narcissism ,narceologic, pschopahy) .. establish all traits hang together in triad (correlation) but also they are separate (make individual contributions to behavior)…also try to find correlation btw dark triad and big 5 …found NEO P R doesn’t capture, & twin studies was a moderate influence of genetics and non shared environemtns 4. Adoption Studies Positive correlations on traits between adopted kids and adoptee parents - environmental influence Positive correlations between adopted children and genetic parents - genetic influence *Adoption studies avoid equal environments assumption Design that combines strengths of twin and adoption studies = MZA twins Dialetic (Hegel): contradictions are part of higher truth Shared Environmental Influences If phenotype influenced solely by shared environment.. MZ twins together : r = 1.00 aka 100%..perfect correlation DZ twins together : r = 1.00 Sibs together: r = 1.00 3 Nonshared Environmental Influences Ex: treated differently by parents, different friends, different teachers, some go to camp If trait influenced solely by nonshared environmental influences MZ twins together or apart: correlation Same for DZ twins and for sibs Heritability of Traits For each FFM factor 35%-65% variability due to heritability For most traits, environment has major influence, but influence is primarily from nonshared Example: Intelligence Texas Adoption Study (large, well controlled) Time 1, children’s IQ significantly correlated with both bio mom(.23) and adoptive mom (.13)… stronger correl w bio mom Time 2, children’s IQ significantly correlated only with bio mother (.26). *Heritability higher for IQ than personality *Shared family environment not an important influence on either IQ or personality Epigenetics Study of heritable changes in gene function that occur without change in DNA sequence -stress, physical activity affects and can change epigeno in each twin Experimental control & random assignment= true experiment; alternative is correlational -either 1 variable causes other, 2 causes the first, or third variable CHAPTER 7: NEUROSCIENCE OF PERSONALITY MAJOR DIVISIONS OF NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Central (brain & spinal cord) 2. Peripheral (everything else concerned w the nervous system) -somatic nervous system don’t need to know the divisions in this -autonomic nervous system: 1. sympathetic division “fight-or-flight” system 2. parasympathetic think of this as opposite … MEASURE: BODILY RESPONSES Skin conductance (GSR) measures moisture on skin Electromyography (EMG) muscle movements, to see muscles flex that isn’t visible to the human eye MEASURE BRAIN STRUCTURE Computerized tomography (CT) scan: xray of brain to detect abnormalities/brain tissue Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): radio waves, activity of atoms *both are only static pics of brain; one moment in time EEG: cap fits over head and electrodes attached to it & see stimulated area brain activity --EP: activity in brain measured in response to a stimuli PET: (give p solution that has low level of radio activity and scan persons brain to see where glucose is being used.. most activated brain shows most glucose in it- 3D image of brain) fMRI :(same as pet but shows activity… most standard… give person task and see what areas light up.. problem is that its really expensive) TMS (newest type of technology, electrode placed along skull and stimulated and provides electrical stimulatopn to the brain, and distrupts activity in that part of the brain..used for 4 depressed) Cortical stimulation (involves attaching electrodes/implants to diff areas of brain –don’t do that w humans too often cuz electrodes actually ON the brain; done with animals) Brain imaging uses scatterplots..can show outliers, + (cloud upward) or – (down), & strength (more of a circle the less related, more oval strongly related) MEASURE BRAIN ACTIVITY  Biochemical Activity -Neurotransmitters: chemicals released by neurons to excite (aka fire) next neuron into action, or inhibit it  Dopamine: related to energy to feelings of pleasure  Serotonin: mood regulation and arousal, control of sleeping and eating  Norepinephrine and epinephrine are also considered stress hormones *MAO monamine oxidase regulates these Research example: TED talk Brain and Love: used fMRI of ppl in love: why do ppl fall in love (b/c of same religion, good looks, money, … but also involves 40-60% of who u are comes from DNA . . she put questionaires like ex I am always travelling (shows if ur an explorer) & put these on Results:bio reasons & the traits matched w it/what put under description 1. Dopamine & norepinephrine (explorer)…traits= independent, energetic, risk taker, impulsive, open mind, creativity 2. Serotonin (builder), …cautious, conventional, respectful, conscientious, fact-oriented, close- minded, moralistic, , *most common in china, George Washington 3. Testosterone (director), bold, direct, decisive, impatient, , real, challenging, steve jobs, 4. Estrogen & oxytocin (negotiator).. imaginative, good ppl skills, affectionate, feelings, , Operah Charles Darwin Challenge test: give drug either Increase or decrease neurotransmitter functioning & monitor impact of new substance BIOLOGICAL THEORIES 1. Eysenck’s PEN model 3 factors: neurot, extro, psychoticism -biological theory (differences in neuro chemsity that account for major diff in people on three factors) -evidence: Cross-cultural, consistent, heritability  Introverts (I): greater cortical of arousal in ARAS so they need quieter places to get back into state of homeostasis or else theyd be too aroused *If this is the case then it Should be present in sleep too (should see high level of arousal even when at rest) But Only difference in response to moderate stimulation (if there was some moderate stimulation exposed to then itll be high)  Neuroticism (N) = stability of SNS (sympathetic nervous system) and vulnerability of negative emotions 5  HN: increase in heart rate in response to intense stimuli (shows sensitive SNS)  SNS doesn’t distinguish between the I and N (neuroto)  However..HN, but not I: greater startle response to scary pictures  Overall, HN may be more sensitive to negative emotions , but not arousing situations as I‘s are 2. Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) (Gray reinterpretation of Eyesneck) instead of looking at particular parts of brain (eyesneck), but looks at neuro systems aka neural network systems systems:  Flight-fight-freeze system (FFFS) Fear, avoidance ex if someone has a very responsive FFFS system. Would be someone who is more cautious, avoidant, paranoid, phobias  Behavioral approach system (BAS) Optimism, impulsiveness..organizes responses to appetitive stimuli aka things that we want ex someone with high BAS is someone who is optimistic, impulsive, sensistive to reward  Behavioral inhibition system (BIS).. It Resolves conflicts by weighing alternatives ex perceive stimuli and figure out which one is gonna be bad or good for the person Problem: until conflict is resolved, the person is gonna have Anxiety before resolution which is aversive for the person -it’s the interaction among them that’s key rather than each system working individually -all systems 30 degrees off from Eyesneck’s Extraversion & Neurotisicm Evidence -For reward: Ppl strong in BAS (questionare that measures this) showed stronger reaction to appetizing/dicusting food in the brain area that has to do wit food regulation -For learning; Larsen et al., (2003): • Condition 1: Start with $10, punished for incorrect or slow responses - all ended with $5 • Condition 2: Start with $0, rewarded for correct and fast responses - all ended with $5 • Those high in BAS did better in Condition 2 (not gonna take the chance of failing) • Those high in BIS did better in Condition 1 The Zinbarg and Mohlman Study (1998) Temperaments (all bio based theories [a group/taxonomy of collection of trait bio theories] have three related personality traits) it is present early, stable across life course, mutable w maturation and experience, do with amount of energy p expresses and similar in other species  Extraversion: Emotion, reward sensitivity, sociability, approach stimuli rather than be fearful Neuroticism: Negative emotion, anxiety, punishment sensitivity, withdrawal from stimuli Impulsivity: Psychoticism, sensation/ novelty seeking, lack of constraint  Correlations of Cortical Thickness: Introversion is correlated with thickness of three sections of the right (but not the left) cortex -Could be a function of the lowered social inhibition of extraverts (why the area is thinner) 6 -HighN correlated with less volume in left cortex, compared to LowN PHRENOLOGY (GALL) functions of brain were localized in parts of cerebral cortex; size of cortex by size & shape & bumps on scalp related to personality DTI: fmri that traces diffusion of water in cells  Need to think in terms of brain system, not just brain parts  Need to move beyond correlation methods  Connectionism -Central principle: can look at mental phenomena (how we think, etc) can be described by (can be looked at by) interconnected networks of units -Mental processing seen as the dynamic and evolving CHAPTER 8: INTRAPSYCHIC FOUNDATIONS Attachment theory: emotional bonds w caregivers which become mental representations (internal working model) of our future intimate relationships Transference: redirection for one person onto a diff person who resembles original person Driving Forces in Personality (Freud) Mind-body problem answer= instincts (more like impulse)/trieb: tension/excitation originating from body psychic energy= mind; body energy= bodily functions Two types: 1. Eros: the life instinct (preserve human life by satisfy needs for hunger and sexual needs this driving force is in every behind force is libido [sexual energy]) 2. Thanatos: the death instinct ; generated a lot of controversy that this driving force consisted of aggressive forces /thoughts/actions and the desire to return person to an inorganic state where theyd have peace ; erotic human existence: constant struggle btw life and death instinct btw individuals desires and society Uncover unconscious Free association: patient says whatever comes to mind Dream analysis: decipher hidden meaning in dream manifest content: what they saw in their dream latent content: what true meaning is in dream Wegnersuppressed thoughts appear in dream but not our desires; cognitive ironic process of mental control Parapraxes: mistakes caused by unconscious desires Freudian slip (mistake in speech), jokes, symbolic behaviors (looks innocent but has deep motive) Word association method (jung): connections ppl made btw words, & complexes/schemas modern version: IAT (how fast one reacts is to do w. connection btw word) Structure model of personality: 7 1. Id: original and primary process thinking; animals have this too, pleasure principle satisfy: reflex action (immediate physical action) or wish fulfillment (imagining/fantasy) 2. Ego: realistic principle and secondary process through identification – satisfies demands of id and keeps it in check 3. Super ego: internalization of societys values- consists of conscience (knowledge of what we shouldn’t do) and ego ideal (knowledge what we should do) system of limited amount of energy that flows within all 3 ex the id will be at the forefront ex if ur really tired, or the superego could be at front ex how you act in an interview No evidence about proposed division of parts Ideas of conflict and behavioral compromise among forces that remain important Topographic model/ divisions of the mind: referred to human mind iceberg conscious (aware of) sticking above water, preconscious (stuff can be called into awareness if you want, can have cues) and unconscious (thoughts feeling unaware of and inaccessible- motivated unconscious [thoughts, defenses] & cognitive unconscious [motivated to regulate thoughts]) below water -unconcsiouis in freudian is cant access, but nowadays we see uncons as being available by things like implicit association and brain imaging Relationship of structural and topographic: unconscious: matches with id ego: partly unconscious preconscious and conscious superego: partly preconscious and conscious Defense Mechanisms (most written by Anna Freud) Anxiety caused by id-superego conflict (physical symptom= conversion reaction) Unconscious aspect of ego attempts to defend ego from this conflict *abandon idea of sexual/aggression impulses most threatening; now its threats to our self-esteem rather than ego Displacement: id expressed but target is changed to be more acceptable ex angry at mom and slam door Catharsis: release of id energy *evidence shows ppl angry who got to punch a bag were more aggressive than angry ppl told just to sit Sublimation: transforming id impulses to more acceptable ones ex onto sports Suppression: pushing impulse down (aware of it)  results from suppression is Projection: ascribing your own undesirable impulses to others (ex. If u have a bad day u walk in and shout at husband who didn’t do anything to you ) *evidence not thinking bout your trait increases tendency to see trait in other ppl Repression: impulse prevented from reaching consciousness (not aware) Rationalization: giving a “rational” explanation when its not rational Isolation: isolate threatening thought by keeping it separate from other feelings Intellectualization: uncoupling thought and feeling; look at smarter side of things ex broke up w boyfriend “it was the best for us anyways” Denial: refuse to believe something bad happened Undoing: attempt to nullify an action through another action 8 counterfactual thinking: imagine how it might’ve gone differently if u undid the event (bronze metalists happier than silver when did this thinking) Reaction formation: act exact opposite how u actually feel An Example of Reaction Formation: Homophobia By Adams, Henry E.; Wright, Lester W.; Lohr
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