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midterm review of all definitions.docx

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Connie Boudens

CHAPTER 1 Personality psychology: scientific study of what makes people who they are. Study of individual differences: for identifying ways in which people are similar and different, how they became that way. Traits: a person‟s typical way of thinking/feeling/acting in various situations, at different times.  These are consistent across lifetime and expressed in many ways Genetics: study of how genes and environment affect personality/behaviour  Evolution has selected behaviours that improve survival of species/individual and their close genetic relatives Neuroscience: study of how brain and nervous system affect personality/behaviour through the study of bodily responses, brain structure, brain activity, and biochemical activity. Self and Identity: sense of who we are – including self-concept, self-esteem, social identity  Self-concept: sense of who we are  Self-esteem: our opinion of our self-concept  Social identity: trying to present ourselves in certain way to others or taking on the personality that others give us Intrapsychic Foundations of Personality: Looking within selves (intra) to own conscious and unconscious thoughts/feelings (psychic) that also make up our personality. Regulation and Motivation: concerned with how people adjust their responses to the environment, both consciously and unconsciously. Cognitive Foundations: how people perceive and think about information about themselves and the world Scientific Method: describes how to make and test observations about the world in order to draw conclusions while minimizing error or bias 1. Identification of basic facts about world and building a theory with them 2. Make predictions and test predictions based on their theories using controlled methods 3. Make results public by publishing them in journals, on internet, or presenting at conferences Observational study: observe what people do, to understand a certain phenomenon  Make a hypothesis (educated guess) to explain findings Personality questionnaire: tests in which people answer questions about themselves that identify certain aspects of their personality Correlation coefficient: measures the relationship, or co-relation, between two variables.  Indicated by r Correlations can be positive or negative.  Positive: two variables increase or decrease at the same time  Negative: one variable decreases while the other increases or vice versa Correlational studies: researchers generally don‟t manipulate variables but instead measure two variables to see how they are related. Experiment: placing people in a controlled situation and seeing how they react Researchers usually design at least two conditions that differ in the variable that they wish to study:  Experimental condition: participants experience one treatment  Control condition: participants experience another treatment or no treatment at all. Researchers use random assignment (giving each participant an equal chance of being in either group) to assign a participant to one group or another. Experimental control: all aspects of the experiment are the same except for the variable being studied True experiment: allows researchers to conclude that what they manipulated caused a difference in the outcome. Independent variable: variable that the researchers manipulate – independent of participants‟ responses. Dependent variable: variable that the researchers measure – the responses of the participants Self-report data: questionnaires, interviews etc. Observation data: behaviour is observed by professionals, friends Test data: example – how person behaves in a controlled situation Life data: info about the person‟s life Respect for persons: includes allowing person to choose whether they want to participate, by giving their consent after they have been informed about the procedures and possible risks of the study (informed consent).  Special consideration must also be given to people who have limited autonomy or limited physical/mental capacity Beneficence: researchers should do no harm to the participants  Using best research methods/materials, having trained personnel interact with research participants, minimizing potential harm and maximizing possible benefits of research participation Justice: benefits and burdens of research participants must be shared equitably among potential research populations  Researchers must treat all participants fairly/equally, avoiding samples or convenience/exploitation of vulnerable populations/not involving persons from groups unlikely to benefit from research  Also suggests that participants should receive some benefit or value for being in the study – money, learning experience, treatment for cure under study or general benefit for society Common Rule: mandates that institutes that conduct research must establish and maintain an institutional review board (IRB) to review all research to make sure they hold up standards CHAPTER 2 Behavioural residue: when people live in an environment, they leave behind traces that hint at the personality of the person. Personality trait: describe a person‟s typical style of thinking, feeling, acting in different kinds of situations and at different times.  Temporary states (emotions), attitudes, physical attributes are not considered traits. Traits are measured over a continuum – a continuous stretch from low to high. They can‟t be directly measured (like height/weight) so psychologists view them as hypothetical concepts. Idiographic: goal is to understand personality of a single individual with all of the idiosyncrasies/characteristics that make them unique Nomothetic: goal is to discover universals – concepts that can apply to everyone – by identifying traits that describe all people or can be applied to any person. Central traits: traits that are a major importance in understanding person. 5 or 10 traits that people might use to describe one person to another. (“They‟re talkative, outgoing etc.) Secondary traits: traits of lesser importance, less consistently displayed or seldom displayed or only slightly revealed so only a close friend might recognise them. Cardinal traits: these are for unusual people where only trait can describe them. They are extremely pervasive and extremely influential that practically every aspect of the person‟s life is touched by the „ruling passion‟.  Example: Oscar the Grouch Theoretical Approach: personality psychologists start with a theory or even common wisdom about human personality Lexical Approach: explores a particular language and identifies the number of synonyms that describe personality Measurement Approach: discovering important aspects of personality and trying to measure personality Factor analysis: statistical technique that mathematically identifies meaningful underlying structure among a set of variables Eigenvalue of a factor: Each factor can explain a certain amount of variation (variance) in answers between participants. Factor loadings: calculated from the eigenvalue, an estimate of how strongly each questions fits into a given factor. The Big Five is composed of Surgency (Extraversion), Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Culture. FFM: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness Eysenck‟s PEN model of personality: Identified three broad dimensions of personality, based on physiological/biological differences between people: Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism Psychoticism: how tough-minded or antisocial a person is. People high in psychoticism tend to be selfish and antisocial. Extraversion: how outgoing people are to social/physical environment. People high in extraversion tend to be outgoing and experience many positive feelings. Neuroticism: refers to negative emotionality and emotional reactivity. People high in neuroticism tend to be easily upset and vulnerable to negative emotions. People low in neuroticism tend to be even-tempered and calm, somewhat unemotional, and recover quickly after an upsetting situation. Facets: the six subscales that make up the five factors, according to the NEO-PI-R Openness (or “Inquiring Intellect”): can refer to an appreciation of the life of the mind in such things as ideas, thoughts, fantasies, art, and beauty. NOT the same as intelligence. People can score high on Openness and low on IQ. Agreeableness: quality of interpersonal relationships (how well the person gets on with others). Can also be thoughts of as prosocial or communal orientation to others and is contrasted with antagonism/competitiveness. Conscientiousness: individual‟s degree of organization, both physical organization (tidy office) and mental organization (planning ahead). Also includes how they regulate impulses. People high in this are organized, neat, thorough, and diligent. Also have better GPA and job performance. This can lead to annoying habits like fastidiousness, compulsive neatness, and workaholic behaviour. People low in this are more likely to smoke/drink/do drugs, show ADD, have poor diet, and not exercise enough. General personality factor (GPF): the smallest number of factors that can describe personality. In this case, it is one factor that is hypothesized to explain all of human personality like the way g represents an underlying factor of all intelligence. The GPF lies at the top of a hierarchy.  This factor would include all of the positive aspects of the five factors (Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Intellect). It would also have the two factors of alpha (ability to get along with others) and beta (the flexibility to deal with change, challenges, demands).  People high in GPF are altruistic, sociable, able to handle stress, dependable, task-focused. HEXACO (six-factor model): Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience. Alpha: Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness Beta: Extraversion and Openness to Experience CHAPTER 3 Spiritual transcendence: ability of individuals‟ to „stand outside of their immediate sense of time and place to view life from a larger, more objective perspective‟ Sexy Seven: 7 sexuality-related factors – Sexual Attractiveness, Relationship Exclusivity, Gender Orientation, Sexual Restraint, Erotophilic Disposition, Emotional Investment, Sexual Orientation. Philotimo: (Greek) polite, generous, responsible, respectful, strong sense of honour. Filial piety: (Chinese) caring for the physical/mental well-being of elderly family members, continuing family line, and bring honour to one‟s family. Amae: (Japanese) Person who has a strong social obligation to take care of others Indigenous traits: traits originating from another language and that are unique to a culture. Ren Qing: traditional relationship orientation, emphasizing give/take and connectedness. Ah-Q mentality: defensiveness Interpersonal Relatedness: made up of Harmony, Ren Qing, Ah-Q, and Face Triangulation: process of using multiple methods within a single program of research. Each method compensates for the weakness of others. S data (self-report data): objective personality tests, interviews, narratives, life stories, and survey research T data (test data): information from testing situations – experimental procedures or standardized measures that have objective rules for scoring a person‟s performance. Ex.: intelligence tests, task persistence, and reaction times O data (observation data): obtained by watching people in the laboratory or in their daily lives. Can be provided by researcher or by family members/friends/colleagues etc. L data (life data): information about a person that is publicly available – socioeconomic status, membership in clubs, number of family members. Continuity/consistency: amount of trait that stays the same Change: amount of trait that is different, either increased or decreased from previously. Personality coherence: underlying trait stays the same but the way it is expressed changes. A type of continuity.  Example: sensation-seeking 10 year-old might explore neighbourhood. Sensation-seeking 26 year-old might do cliff diving Longitudinal study: method to study how traits develop over a lifetime. Mean level change: type of general change that affects nearly all people as they grow from infancy to childhood. Individual change: how individual person changes over time Normative change: how people change over time, on average Temperaments: individual differences that originally begin to be shown in childhood. CHAPTER 4 Personality Assessment: measurement of the individual characteristics of a person Reliability: an estimate of how consistent a test is, describing the extent to which test scores are consistent and reproducible with repeated measurements. Consistent results should be across time, items, and raters. Temporal consistency reliability: when an assessment gives consistent results across time, often tested by test-retest reliability Test-retest reliability: when a test gives a consistent result from one point in time to a later point in time. Internal consistency reliability: when an assessment gives consistent results across items, demonstrated by:  Parallel-forms reliability: two versions of the test that are comparable and can be checked to see if the scores on both versions are similar  Split-half reliability: splitting a test in half and seeing if test-takers‟ scores on one half correlated with the scores on the other half.  Cronbach‟s alpha ( ): Taking the correlation between the scores of two halves of a test then calculating the average correlation of all possible halves of the test. This estimates the generalizability of the score from one set of items to another. o Researchers try to make sure that their measures have an alpha of 0.70 to 0.80. o This should be even higher when desi
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