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University of Toronto Scarborough
Connie Boudens

PSYB30 Lecture 7  Central Nervous System -> Brain/Spinal Cord  Peripheral Nervous System -> Somatic Nervous System (body movements?) -> Autonomic Nervous System (automatic movements)  The Autonomic Nervous system is broken down into 1) Sympathetic Nervous System Known as the fight or flight system. Comes when you feel threatened, slows down activity in regions non-essential (ie. urinary) and increases important functions for fight/flee. Ie. heart rate increase to get more oxygen for muscles. 2) Parasympathetic division Does opposite effect of sympathetic nervous system (it calms things down)  Techniques to measure brain stimulation areas Cortical Stimulation (mostly done to animals) - electrodes or implants placed somewhere in brain and when they stimulate it they see what happens. Ie. mouse usually scared of snake but if you stimulate some area of its brain and you see it attack it then you located a right area for that EEG: put some helmet on looking at electrical activity in different parts of brain through skull PET: give somebody a solution with low level of radioactivity that has glucose, and scan the person brain to see where the glucose is being used to see which parts of brain working fMRI: mri gives you 3d image of brain whereas fMRI shows activity in brain. Ie. give the person a task to do and see where activity in brain is. (very expensive but the best way right now) TMS: disrupts activity in parts of brain to inhibit it, can be used as an alternative to ECT (electro- convulsive treatment)  Neurotransmitters: chemicals released by neurons to transmit info (excite or inhibit) -> Dopamine: related to energy, pleasure, learning, sensitivity to rewards -> Serotonin: too little is linked to depression (very organized, exacting, number crunching etc) -> Norepinephrine: considered stress hormones -> Epinephrine: considered stress hormones (goals are to increase blood flow to muscles and increase heart rate/blood pressure)  Eysenck PEN model theory of personality: -> Neuroticism, Extraversion, Psychoticism -> Evidence: These traits were cross-cultural (universality) perhaps means its biological foundation, consistent over time, and heritable. -> He believed Introverts have greater cortical arousal therefore they need time to themselves to relax? However then the case should be true for when they are at rest too? -> Believed people that were neurotic had a more sensitive sympathetic nervous system and are more vulnerable to negative emotions  Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST): -> Gray’s reinterpretation of Eysenck’s theory. -> Neurological systems: Think: sets of neural networks (Flight-Fight-Freeze system (FFFS) – Fearful/avoidance (punishment) (Behavioural Approach System (BAS)) – optimism/impulsive/risks (reward) (go for it) (Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS)) – resolves conflict/anxiety b4 resolution (conflict/careful)  Temperament theory of personality: -> Biological theories converge on three temperaments 1. Extraversion – emotion, reward sensitivity, sociability, social rewards 2. Neuroticism – negative emotion, anxiety, punishment sensitivity, withdrawal 3. Impulsivity – psychoticism, sensation/novelty seeking, lack of constraint/agreeableness -> Extraverts experience stronger reactions to positive stimuli than introverts -> High Neuroticism experience more negative emotion and stronger reaction than Low N -> Positive and negative emotions are separate dimensions, not opposites. -> Introverts have thicker right cortical cortex -> High neuroticism correlate with thinner left cortex compare to low neuroticism  Central principle: mental phenomena can be described by networks -> neurons in brain communicate with each other -> Connectionist networks or “neural nets” are special computer programs that simulate neural networks  Connectome- neural map individual Lecture 8  Eros: life instinct – seeks to preserve human life by satisfying hunger thirst and sexual needs -> Libido  Thanatos: death instinct – aggressive thoughts and actions  Human existence is the constant struggle between eros and thanatos forces.  Tripartite model of the psyche: -> ID: original most primitive (pleasure principle) -> EGO: Reality principle: satisfies ID and keeps it in check -> SUPEREGO: Morality principle: conscience, ego-ideals, society values  Topographic model -> Conscious (superego/ego) -> Preconscious (superego/ego) -> Unconscious (ego/id)  Defense mechanisms -> Anxiety caused by id-superego conflict (pleasure vs morality)  Repression: impulse prevented from reaching consciousness  Suppression: pushing impulse down (ie. impulse to smack someone and you don’t)  Sublimation: transforming id impulses to more acceptable ones. Ie. you want to hurt others, but take it in a way more socially acceptable (contact sports)  Projection: ascribing undesirable impulses onto others ie. if you had a bad day you take it out on others?  Rationalization: giving a “ration” explanation for your behaviour. ie. I didn’t want it anyways, or I did it on purpose  Intellectualization: uncoupling thought and feeling. Reduces anxiety by thinking about the intellectual component instead of the emotional component of an event.  Undoing: when you attempt to nullify or remove an action or thought  Example of Reaction Formation: homophobia study, took some gay men and non gay men and measure penis circumference (erections) based on images. Only gays got hard.  Psychosexual development theory: people go through stages named for a certain body part centre of sexual pleasure, if conflict happens during the stage there is fixation at the stage 1. Oral – oral receptive: dependent, trusting – (understimulation) oral aggressive – envious, exploitative (overstimulation) 2. Anal (toilet train) – Anal retentive: obstinacy, orderliness, frugal (overly strict toilet training) Anal Explusive: emotional outburst, generous, disorganized, rebellious. 3. Phallic –
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