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Final Exam Review (Textbook Notes 6-12).docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Connie Boudens

CHAPTER 6 GENETICSGenotypes specific gene combinationsBehaviour Genetics study of the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in personality and behaviour Nature and Nurture as AlliesHuman behaviour and personality is an inextricable combination of both genetics and environmentNature and nurture transact can work separately together or may influence one anotherGenotypeEnvironment Interaction Certain environments have different effects on people depending on their specific genetic makeup genotype responds differently to an environmentGenotypeEnvironment Correlation It may be impossible to separate effects of genes from effects of environment genotype is exposed differently to an environmentPhenotypeGenotypeEnvironmentInteractionCorrelation Genes and Environment as CoActors HeritabilityHeritability amount of observed individual differences in some characteristic that can be accounted for by genetic differences refers to differences across populationgroup not a specific personImpossible to say how much your height is due to your genes but given a group we can say about 80 of height differences is due to differing genesHeritability refers to the inheritance of a particular trait in a particular population at a particular time so they can differ based on researcher and methods and time EnvironmentalityEnvironmentality amount of variance in personality accounted for by the environmentWe see higher heritability in equalizing environments environments that are the same for everyone Shared and NonShared EnvironmentsShared Environment aspects of the family environment that are generally the same for all children in the householdNonShared Environment experiences that relatives have which make them different from one anotherWhen family members resemble each other it is more often due to heredity than shared environment Estimating HeritabilityOne measure of heritability is to calculate the correlation between twins on a given trait 2and compare the correlation between MZ and DZ twins h 2rr mzdz Second way of estimating heritability is to compare identical twins who have been raised 2in separate environments MZA twins h r MZADoublethedifference method assume that twins were reared under equal environmental conditionsIf MZ twins are treated more alike that shared environmental factor could inflate heritabilityEqual Environments Assumption applies only to similar treatment that is related to specific characteristic under study assuming the environments are equalAssumption of Representativeness doublethedifferences assumes twins are typical of a populationThe r has limitationsassumes adopted families of each twin are different from each MZAother If they are alike may increase similarity between twins inflating heritabilitySelective Placement selectively placing twins when they are being adopted to be in similar families This makes the genetic and environmental effects inseparableR studies also assume that families that adopt are the same as families who do not MZA If adopted children are more similar to their birth parents than their adopted parents we can assume a higher genetic component Heritability of Common Personality CharacteristicsHeritability of personality traits range from 46 and is same for both men and womenObserved differences in personality traits40 genetics0 shared environment40 nonshared environment20 errorHeritability of all 5 Factors is in the 4150 rangeEnvironment shared and nonshared account for 4753 of variationWhole field of genetics started with Augustinian friar Gregor Mendel o Studied variation in pea plantsAlleles different forms of the same gene o Alleles can be same or different when different one is dominant over the other called Mendelian Inheritance999 of human DNA is the same for everyone its the 01 that makes us uniqueEpigenetics The study of how environment changes the function of the genes without changing the genes themselvesGenes are composed of coding regions Exons and noncoding regions IntronsPositional Cloning if disease inherited once we identify the exact gene involves we can screen who has the gene and then replace faulty genetic code with new and improved code that has been cloned to mach precisely as possible the recipients genetics Genes and Environment A Dialectical SynthesisDialectic a way of thinking in which contradictions are seen to be a part of a higher truthIt is sometimes difficult to distinguish genotypeenvironment interaction from correlation Often comes down to sophisticated statistical tests to determine GenotypeEnvironment InteractionsThis is when people respond differently to the same environment because of their differing genetic makeup Evidence suggests prolonged exposure to dopamine may lead to depressionDespite knowing which genes are related to dopamine functioning they have been unable to probe that these genes cause depressionAnother factor for depression is a certain region of the serotonin transporter gene thinking is that depression may be caused by a lack of the neurotransmitter serotonin o Three variations of the gene ss sl and ll Sshort Llong two short alleles are less efficient at regulating serotonin so they are at risk for depression GenotypeEnvironment CorrelationsPeoples personalities affected the environments they found themselves in and also how they describedthose environments on questionnairesWhen peoples experiences are related to that is correlated with their genetic inclinations we call this a genotypeenvironmento Occur when people with a gene for a specific characteristic find themselves in an environment that fosters or discourages the expression of that characteristicThe interesting question is why people with certain genotypes find themselves in ertain environments o There are three types of correlations passive reactive and active Types of GenotypeEnvironment CorrelationsPassive GenotypeEnvironment Correlation when parents provide both the genes and an environment that is favorable to the development of those genesReactive GenotypeEnvironment Correlation when parents are responding to something in the child ie highly verbal parents who see their baby is babbling and they try to engage the baby in conversationActive GenotypeEnvironment Correlation when people of a certain genotype actively seek out a specific environment because of their personalityPositive GenotypeEnvironment Correlation When a genotype is exposed differently to an environment that is favorable for developing certain characteristicsNegative GenotypeEnvironment Correlation when a genotype is exposed differently to an environment that is unfavorable for developing certain characteristicsCattell suggested that negative genotypeenvironmental correlation is probably more common that positiveOne way to find a reactive genotypeenvironmental correlation is to look at twin studies over time where we might be able to see changes in a childs behaviour and if these changes correlate with changes in the environment CHAPTER 7 THE NEUROSCIENCE PERSONALITYGroup that learned meditation showed less anxiety and showed differences in how their brain responded to emotional stimuli o Greater activation on left prefrontal cortex at rest and in response to positive and negative emotional events and also showed better immune functioningBest way to think of our physiologies is as a package of potentialities for personality
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