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Midterm

PSYB30: Personality - Midterm Exam Review (Textbook Notes 1-5).docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB30H3
Professor
Connie Boudens
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 1 Who am I? Understanding the building blocks of personality Key Terms Personality psychology The scientific study of what maes us who we are. The study of indiv. Diff; identifying ways in which people are both similar and diff and explaining how they became that way. Traits One of the building blocks of personality. A person’s typical way of thinking, feeling, and acting in various situations at diff times. Genetics One of the building blocks of personality. The study of how genes and envir. Affect personality and behaviour. Neuroscience One of the building blocks of personality. The study of how our brain and nervous system affect personality and behaviour through the study of bodily responses, brains structure, brain activity, and biochemical activity. Self and identity One of the building blocks in personality. Our own sense of who we are, including self-concept, self- esteem, and social identity. Intrapsychic foundations One of the building blocks of personality concerned with our own thoughts, feelings, and motives, both conscious and unconscious. Regulation and motivation One of the building blocks of personality concerned with how people adjust their responses to the environment, both consciously and unconsciously. Cognitive foundations One of the building blocks of personality concerned with how people perceive and think about the info about themselves and the world. Intergration Combining indiv. Parts into a coherent whole, such as how the building blocks of personality combine to form a whole person greater than the mere sum of the parts. Scientific mmethod A set of guidelines for making and testing observations about the world in order to build knowledge while minimizing error and bias. Observational study A type of research designs in which scientists observe what people do and generate a hypothesis to explain their findings. Hypothesis An educated guess about what may be causing an observed or predicted effect. Personality questionnaires Tests in which people answer questions about themselves that identify certain aspects of their personality functioning. Correlation coefficient An estimate of the co-relation between two variables. Correlations can be positive or negative depending on the type of relationship. Correlational studies A type of research design in which experimenters measure variables to see how they related. Used when certain variables, like personality, cannot be directly manipulated for practical or ethical reasons. Experimental condition In an experiment, this is the group of participants who receive the treatment the experimenter is testing. Control condition Ina n experiment, this refers to the group of participants who receive no treatment or a neutral treatment. Random assignment What experimenters do to make sure every participant has an equal chance of being a part of each experimental condition. Along with experimental control, this allows experimenters to draw conclusions about the cause of theur results. Experimental control This is when all aspects of an experiment are the same except for the specific variable(s) under study. Along with random assignment, this allows experimenters to draw conclusions about the cause of their testing. True experiment A design in which participants are randomly assigned to conditions which are identical except for the variable(s) under study, which allows experiments to draw conclusions about the cause of their results. Dependent variable The variable under study, a participant’s response, and the variable the experimenters measure or observe. Levels In an experiment, the number of groups in an independent variable. Self-report data Called an S data, they include any info people respond to directly, such as objective personality testes, interviews, narratives, life stories, and survey questions. Observation data Called O data, they include info given by friends, family, teachers, trained raters, or other based on watching how people behave in the laboratory or in their daily lives. Test data Called T data, they include info about people’s reactions to a structured situation such as experimental procedures, intelligence tests, performance tests, and projective tests. Life data Called L data, they include info about people that is publically available, such as graduating from college, clubs and organizations, criminal records, marriages, and so forth. Respect for persons Along with beneficence and justice, one of the three principles of ethical research with human participants outlined in the Belmont report. Informed consent When potential research subjects willingly agree to participate in a study after being told about the study’s procedures, likely risks, and potential benefits of theur participation. Beneficience Along with respect for persons and justice, one of the three principles of ethical research with human participants outlined in the Belmont report. Justice Along with respect for persons ad beneficence, one of the three principles of ethical research with human participants outlined in the Belmont report. Common rule Regulations about human participant research adopted by all USS federal agencies establishing an institutional review board and procedures for obtaining informed consent at all institutions where research is conducted. Institutional review board (IRB) Reviews all research to ensure that it upholds federal standards of ethical principles of research with human participants as outlined in the Common Rule. Independent variable The variable experimenters hypothesize to have an effect on participants’ responses. This may be manipulated in a true experiment or measured in correlational and quasi-experimental studies. neuroticism A personality trait that describes how anxious and vulnerable to negative emotions a person is. People who are low in Neuroticism are described as emotionally stable and tend to be calm, relaxed, and able to handle stress well. Review Questions 1)What are some ways in which a single individual is like all others, like some others. And like no others? 2) What is personality psychology? What are the building blocks of personality? 3) How does psychologist study personality? What are some methods and measurements used by personality psychologists? 4) What are the four different kinds of data a researcher can collect? 5) When researchers find a difference on some measure between two groups, is there a way to judge how large that difference is? 6) What is a correlation? When are correlational designs used? What is the difference between a correlational design and a true experiment? 7) What is so special about true experiment? What two characteristics are present in a true experiment? What is an independent variable? What is a dependent variable? 8) According to research by Ng and Deiner (2009), are some coping strategies better than others? Why or why not? Where does personality fit in? 9) What are the three principles that reasearchers must adhere to in conducting research with human participants? What is an institutional review board? Chapter 2 Personality Traits: A Good Theory Key Terms Behavioural residue Physical traces in living spaces left behind by the everyday actions of people. Trait One of the building blocks if personality. A person’s typical way of thinking, feeling, and acting in various situations at different times. Idiographic approach An approach to the study of traits in which researchers identify the traits that are important for the understanding if a single individual. Nomothetic approach An approach to the study of traits in which researchers seek to identify human universals (i.e. the key traits that are important for describing the personality of many different people) Central traits The 5 to 10 traits that best describe a person. Secondary traits Traits of lesser important or less consistently displayed within a person. Cardinal traits A single trait that completely dominates a person’s entire personality. Most often found in fictional characters than in actual people. Theoretical approach Using theory to identify the most important traits for understanding personality. Lexical approach Using synonyms within or commonalities across languages to identify the most important traits for understanding personality. Measurement approach Using questionnaires and statistics to identify the most important traits for understanding personality. Factor analysis A statistical technique that mathematically identifies a meaningful underlying structure (that is, factors) among a set of variables (such as questions on a questionnaire). Eigenvalue In factor analysis, the amount of variation among participants’ answers that a factor accounts for. Factor loading An estimate of how strongly each question fits into a given factor in a factor analysis. Five- factor model A 5-factor model of personality based on the measurement approach: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Big Five A five-factor model of personality based on the lexical approach: Surgency (Extraversion), Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Culture. Narrow traits The subtraits that make up each of the three factors of Esynck’s PEN theory. Psychoticism A personality trait that describes how tough- minded, selfish, and antisocial a person is. People who are low In Psychoticism are high in Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Extraversion A personality trait that describes how much people energetically seek out interaction with others and experience positive emotions. People who are low in extraversion are described as introverted and tend to be reserved, quiet, and shy. Neuroticism A personality trait that describes how anxious and vulnerable to negative emotions a person is. People who are low in Neuroticism are described an s emotionally stable and tend to be calm, relaxed, and able to handle stress. Facets A set of subtraits for each of the five factors originally based on the subscales if the NEO-PI-R, a questionnaire of the five-factor model. Openness A personality trait that describes how much people appreciate activity and the life of the mind as revealed in ideas, thoughts, fantasies, art, and beauty. People who are low in Openness are described as conventional, preferring the concrete and traditional. Agreeableness A personality trait which describes the quality of personal relationships; how much a person feels for and get along with others. People who are low in Agreeableness tend to be quarrelsome, critical, harsh, blunt, and aloof. Conscientiousness A personality trait that describes an individual’s degree of physical and mental organization and regulation of impulses like thinking before acting, delaying gratification, or following norms and rules. People who are low in Conscientiousness are described as disorganized and tend to be late, careless, and impulsive. General personality factor (GPF) A single factor that describes human personality in one dimension of being emotionally stable enough to get along with others and flexible enough to deal with change and demands. People who are high in this factor are altruistic, sociable, able to handle stress, relaxed, open to experience, dependable, and task-focused. HEXACO model A six-factor model of personality including Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Openness to experience. Alpha Part of the two-factor model of personality, being emotionally stable enough to get along with others. Includes the factors of Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Beta Part of the two-factor model of personality based on the lexical approach: Surgency (Extraversion), Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and culture. Review Questions 1) What is a trait? Explain how traits are organized into a hierarchy. 2) What is the idiographic approach to the study of traits? Describe Allport’s case of ‘’Jenny.’’ How is this an example of the idiographic approach? 3) What is the nomothetic approach? What are the three main ways of identifying the most meaningful and applicable words for describing human personality? What is factor analysis and how is it used in the nomothetic approach? 4) What three factors best account for human personality, according to Eysenck? 5) What are the five factors? What facets make up each factor? What are some important correlates of people high and low in each of the five factors? 6) Is human personality reducible to one factor? Two factors? Six or seven factors? Explain. 7) How is today’s view of personality similar to the view of the ancients? 8) What can you tell about a person from their living space? Chapter 3 Personality Traits: Practical Matters Key Terms Spiritual transcendence A dimension of personality separate from the five factors: the ability of individuals to view life from a large, more objective; a personal search for a greater connection across all of humanity. Sexy seven Dimensions of personality that describe sexuality and overlap about 80% with the five factors; Sexual Attractiveness, Relationship Exclusivity, Gender Orientation, Sexual Restraint, Erotophilic Disposition, Emotional Investment, and Sexual Orientation. Philotimo An indigenous Greek trait term describing the qualities of being polite, generous, responsible, respectful, and having a strong sense of honor. Filial piety An indigenous Chinese trait term describing the qualities of caring for the mental and physical well- being of one’s elderly parents, continuing the family line, and bringing honor to one’s family and ancestors. Amae An indigenous Japanese trait term describing a state of dependency on another person and the inducing of responsibility for caregiving in that other person. Indigenous traits Words describing personality that are unique to a specific culture or language group and not found in Anglo-Saxon cultures. Ren Qing An indigenous Chinese trait term that refers to a traditional relationship orientation emphasizing give and take and connectedness. Ah-Q An indigenous Chinese trait term that means defensiveness; named for Ah-Q, a well-known fictional Chinese character depicted in a classic novel. Interpersonal Relatedness An indigenous personality factor unique to the Chinese referring to instrumentality of relationships, propriety, avoidance of conflict, support of traditions, and compliance with norms. Includes the traits of Harmony, Ren Qing, Ah-Q, and Face. Triangulation Using multiple methodologies within a single study. Development Continuity and change in personality over time. Continuity When a personality trait stays the same over time; also called consistency. Consistency When a personality trait stays the same over time; also called continuity. Change When a personality trait is different, either increasing or decreasing, over time. Personality coherence When the level of a personality trait within a person stays the same (i.e. from childhood to adulthood) but the way it is expressed differs. Longitudinal study
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