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Final Exam Review (Lecture Notes).docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB30H3
Professor
Connie Boudens
Semester
Summer

Description
Neuroscience and Personality [other biological theories] Relationship of personality and changes in:  bodily responses: everything but the brain  Brain structures: refers to the various areas of the brain; also looking at the relative size of the areas. As well as differences in areas according to diff personalities.  Brain activity: transmission of various signals throughout the brain.  Biochemical activity: transmission of the signals facilitated by neurotransmitters.  Nervous system: major divisions of the nervous systems. The feverous system is divided into two divisions: the central nervous system (CNS) which comprises of the spinal cord and brain; and the peripheral nervous system which comprises of the somatic (the body) nervous system and the autonomic (without conscious thoughts-automatic) nervous system.  The sympathetic nervous system is referred to the fight or fight system… comes into play when you feel threatened. What is does, is that it dampens down the other un-needed parts of the body and pays more attention to the parts of the body which would allow for flight. (heart rate increases, breathing more rapid and deeper for more oxygen, skin becomes cold and sweaty, pupils dilate, blood diverted to skeletal muscles, liver releases more glucose into the blood, to supply the muscles with more blood.(It has sympathy for you)  Parasympathetic nervous system is the opposite. I calms things down, may feel like throwing up.  Autonomic nervous system: increase heart rate, bodily tem and blood flow, skin conductance (GSR)  Bodily Responses: MeasuringANS activity (common measures---i.e. liar detector tests)  Heart rate  Body temp and blood flow  Skin conductance (GSR): perspiration on skin, device detects how much electricity the skin conducts.  Electromyography (EMG): measures non-visible muscle movements.  Brain Structure (how to measure it)  Measures of brain structures: static differences in relative size and weight and cell numbers of brain parts.  Main ways of looking at brain structures are CT and MRI. Measures  Static differences in relative size and weight and cell numbers of brain parts  Computerized tomography (CT) scan  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)activity  Cortical stimulation: attaching electrodes or implants to the brain, normally done to animals.  EEG: the cap with electrodes fastened to it, nothing going into the grain… looking at electrode activities through the skull to the bone.  PET: given a low level of glucose and radioactivity; to make sure the scan can pick it up (they us radioactivity)  fMRI: shows you the activities in the brain whereas MRI only looks at the activities.(brain imaging research).  TMS: Transcranial magnetic stimulation. Very similar to cortical stimulation but brain does not need to be opened up, it only disrupts activities in the concentrated areas of the brain.  Biochemical activity: primarily relates to neurotransmitters: chemicals released by neurons to excite next neuron into action, or inhibit it.  Dopamine, serotonin (linked to depression too little)  Norepinephrine and epinephrine are also considered stress hormones. Her job is to increase blood flow to muscles by increasing hear rate and blood pressure.  Research example (TED X east): Helen Fisher-biological anthropologist- personality and psychology.  Important Biological Theories of Personality  Esynck‘s PEN model: neuroticism, extroversion, and psychoticism. Developed this as a theory because he believes there would be biological bodily systems that would account for people differences on the three factors.  Evidence: cross-cultural universality; consistent over time; heritability (genetic or biological going on)  Eysenck: introverts: greater cortical of arousal, space in ARAS; should be present in sleep… only difference in response to moderate stimulation.  Eysenck: Neuroticism= stability of SNS and vulnerability of negative emotions; HM: increase in heart rate in response to intense stimuli; I‘d do as well; HN, but not I: greater startle response to scary pictures.  Overall, HN more sensitive to negative emotions, but not arousing situations, as I‘s are.  Introverts are more sensitive to arousing situations.  Not sufficient support for Eysenck hypothesis that N is related to SNS activity.  Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST): has to do with different neurological systems in the brain.  Gray‘s (1972,1990) reinterpretation of Esynck‘s theory  Neurological Systems: think: sets of neural networks.—Fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS)  (FFFS): similar to sympathetic nervous system. The brain and the nervous system. Fearfulness, avoidance;  Behavioral approach system (BAS): more optimistic and impulsive. Risk failure in order to gain an award.  Behavioural inhibition system (BIS): resolves conflicts, anxiety before resolution. When it becomes activated, the person will be more sensitive to punishment, and negative outcomes.  The theory proposes that individual difference in relative sensitivity of systems.  Temperament: not the same as the temp models learnt.  Factors: Neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism  Evidence:  Cross-cultural universality  Consistency over time  Heritability  Eysenck:  Introverts: greater cortical of arousal, spec inARAS  Should be present in sleep  Only difference in response to moderate stimulation  Eysenck:  Neuroticism = stability of SNS and vulnerability of negative emotions  HN: increase in heart rate in response to intense stimuli  I‘s do as well  HN, but not I: greater startle response to scary pictures  Overall, HN may be more sensitive to (-) emotions , but not arousing situations as I‗s are  Not sufficient support for Esynck‘s hypothesis that neuroticism is related to SNS activity  Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) Gray‘s (1972, 1990) reinterpretation of Esynck‘s theory Neurological Systems  Think: sets of neural networks  Flight-fight-freeze system (FFFS)  Fearfulness, avoidance  Behavioral approach system (BAS)  Optimism, impulsiveness  Behavioral inhibition system (BIS)  Resolves conflicts  Anxiety before resolution  Individual difference in relative sensitivity of systems  Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Systems  Key Predictions of RST  Individual differences in reward sensitivity  Individual differences in learning  Reward sensitivity example Prediction: Brains of high and low BAS people respond differently to food  This Evidence  Neural differences  BAS drive significantly accounted for signal differences in five brain areas related to visual food cues  Learning Larsen et al., (2003). Colour naming task (moderate difficulty: average performance 50%)  • Condition 1: Start with $10, punished for incorrect or slow responses - all ended with $5  • Condition 2: Start with $0, rewarded for correct and fast responses - all ended with $5  • Those high in BAS did better in Condition 2,  • Those high in BIS did better in Condition 1 The Zinbarg and Mohlman Study (1998) Results: RST prediction supported  Temperaments Three clusters of related personality traits:  Extraversion:  + Emotion, reward sensitivity, sociability, social rewards, approach  Neuroticism:  Negative emotion, anxiety, punishment sensitivity, withdrawal  Impulsivity:  Psychoticism, sensation/ novelty seeking, lack of constraint/conscientiousness/agreeableness  See table 7.2 in text  Neurological Correlates of Temperaments Overview  Difference between emotion expression and response to emotions  Extraverts: More (+) emotions, stronger reactions than I  High N : more (-) emotions, stronger reactions than LN  Positive and negative emotions are separate dimensions, not opposites  Correlations of Cortical Thickness  Introversion is correlated with thickness of three sections of the right (but not the left) cortex.  Could be a function of the lowered social inhibition of extraverts (why the area is thinner)  Keep in mind that more grey matter does not equal functionality  HN correlated with less volume in left cortex, compared to LN  What have we learned from the neuroscience of personality? The jury is still out!  Need to think in terms of brain system, not just brain parts  Need to move beyond correlation methods  Connectionism  Central principle: mental phenomena can be described by interconnected networks of units  Neurons in the brain communicate with one another through elaborate networks  Connectionist networks (or artificial neural nets) are special computer programs that simulate biological networks  Mental processing seen as the dynamic and evolving  Intrapsychic Foundations ― Driving Forces in Personality: divided into two parts that Freud proposed. Eros: the life instinct, sexual and hunger needs in every person. Libido is the energy behind this force. Thanatos: the death instinct; Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche Tripartite model of the psyche: 1. Id: original and most primitive part 2. Ego: realistic aspect – satisfies demands of id and keeps it in check 3. Superego: internalization of society‘s values-consist of conscience and ego-ideal. Does the Structural Model hold up to empirical support? No evidence about proposed division of parts Ideas of conflict and behavioral compromise among forces that remains important Defense Mechanisms Anxiety caused by id-superego conflict Unconscious aspect of ego attempts to defend ego from this conflict Repression: impulse prevented from reaching consciousness Suppression: pushing impulse down Sublimation: transforming id impulses to more acceptable ones Projection: ascribing undesirable impulse to others Rationalization: giving a rational explanation Intellectualization: uncoupling thought and feeling Undoing: attempts to nullify an action or thought Reaction formation: converting an unacceptable impulse into its opposite. An Example of Reaction Formation: Homophobia byAdams, Henry E.; Wright, Lester W.; Lohr, BethanyA.Journal ofAbnormal Psychology. Vol 105 (3),Aug 1996, 440-445. Agroup of homophobic men and a group of non-homophobic men were exposed to sexually explicit erotic stimuli consisting of heterosexual, male homosexual and lesbian videotapes, and changes in penile circumference were monitored. Only the homophobic men showed an increase in penile erection to male homosexual stimuli. Theory of Psychosexual Development People pass through stages Conflict/trauma results in fixation on this conflict Stages of Psychosexual Development Oral Oral aggressive character: envious, exploitativeg, not competent Anal Anal retentive character: obstinacy, orderliness, rigidity, frugality Anal expulsive character: emotional outbursts, disorganization, generosity, rebelliousness Phallic Phallic character in males: reaction to castration fear – reckless, bold behaviors Phallic character in females: continual striving for superiority over men Latency stage Genital stage Genital character: mature and capable of adult intimacy Problems with Freud‘s Psychosexual Stages Latency Period Freud: no significant development in id impulses of erogenous zone Current thinking: important time of physical cognitive, social, and emotional development Freud: all stages must be successfully handled to navigate adulthood Current thinking: no clear support for predicted outcomes if all stage challenges not met Biased methods and sampling Inadequate developmental proof for Oedipal complex Gender differences in morality not supported Personality fixed and unchanging Focus on sex and aggression Freud‘s Theories Today: 5 Postulates Attachment Theory Basics Warm, intimate, relationship with primary caregiver essential Impacts emotion regulation, mental health Internal working model created Model of relationships Model of other Model of self Attachment Ainsworth, following Bowl by (1978) InfantAttachment Styles Secure: may or may not cry, greeting or full approach at return, easily comforted. Avoidant: may or may not cry, little or no eye-to-eye contact at return, no greeting; atrial approach Anxious/Ambivalent: distress by separation, passive or angry at reunion, difficult to comfort Disorganized Aspects of attachment may be transferred to romantic and peer relationships: Proximity maintenance: resistance to separation Secure base Safe haven associated with an attachment figure Attachment development Are Romantic RelationshipsAttachment Relationships? (Fraley, 2010) If so: We should see same attachment patterns Adult relationships should work in same ways Continuity in attachment style Attachment Patterns Hasan and Shaver (1987) interviewed 600+ adults. Asked them to choose which best described their significant relationship Avoidant 25% Secure 56% Anxious/Ambivalent: 11% Does adult attachment the same way? Airport study (Fraley & Shaver, 1998) Observers coded behaviours of couples Hypotheses Couples separating should show more attachment behaviors Separation behaviors should match attachment style ASampling of Behaviors Exhibited by Separating Before boarding, he reads the newspaper and she leans her head on his shoulder Both hold each other for approximately 5 min She stands on her tip-toes to give him a kissrain) Tears in eyes; both members wipe the other's tears away Holding hands She is still at the window 20 min after the plane leaves Extended hand stretch He leaves before she boards the plane but watches her from a distance without her knowledge He kisses her head several times He leaves quickly She walks away crying Long hug; both are crying She whispers "I love you" to him as she boards Prolonged hug at the gate She, in a comforting manner, strokes his face Many behaviours of separating adults for maintaining contact Ex: hold onto, follow, and search for their partners If not separating, attachment behavior fairly subdued Functional dynamics of attachment appear similar in adulthood Regulation of these behaviours associated with attachment style Ex: avoidant adults showed much less attachment behavior than less avoidant adults More evidence of for similarity Adult‘s see (+) caregiving qualities, as most "attractive" in potential dates Secure adults more likely than insecure to seek support from partners, and to provide support Attributions insecure individuals make re: partner's behaviour during conflicts exacerbate insecurities Continuity ofAttachment Style Childhood attachment style is weakly related to adult romantic attachment style r = .39 Early internal working models modified by experiences and events Why does this matter to us? Attachment patterns related to range of (+) outcomes in adults Secure adults: less defensive behaviors; Insecure adults: less tolerance of out-group members, humanistic values, compassion Why does this matter? AdultAttachment and personality Personality and Genetics (Relevant) Cell biology basics Cell nucleus contains DNA Carries genetic information Controls growth and development 23 pairs of chromosomes One gene = _______________? Gene expression: genotype vs phenotype Genotype = specific genetic makeup Phenotype = how genetic makeup is expressed Forms of gene expression • Dominant-recessive • one dominates • Co-dominance and incomplete dominance • neither dominant, or one dominant - doesn‘t hide effects of other • Co-dominance: both expressed • Incomplete dominance: combination expressed • Polygenic • Many pairs of alleles create expression Role of Environment Phenotype =Genotype + environment +gene-environment interaction +gene-environment correlation Genotype-Environment Interactions Impact of environment depends on genotype Example: Religious upbringing reduces influence of genetic factors on disinhibit ion. Genotype-Environment Correlation Differential exposure of individuals with different genotypes to different environments Passive: Parents provide both genes and environment to children. Child‘s verbal ability and the number of books in home Reactive / evocative: Parents (or others) respond to children depending on the genotype Baby likes for cuddling and mother‘s cuddling behavior Active: Person with particular genotype seeks out environment High sensation seekers expose themselves to risky environments Passive decreases with age, active increases Genotype-environment correlations can be positive or negative Behavioral Genetics Attempt to determine % of individual differences in a trait due to genetic and % due to environment Determine the ways genes and environment interacts and correlates Determine what relevant environmental factors are. Heritability: amount of individual difference in trait due to genetic differences. Environmentality extent to which individual differences are due to environmental differences Misconceptions about Heritability Heritability CANNOT be applied to single individual Only applies to group-level variation Heritability NOT constant or immutable Environment homogenous? - Heritability higher Environmental variations increase - heritability will be lower Even highly heritable traits modifiable by environment. Heritability NOT a precise statistic – think estimate Behavioral Genetics Methods Selective Breeding—Studies of Humans‘Best Friend Family Studies Twin Studies Adoption Studies Selective Breeding Can only occur if a desired trait is heritable Done using animals Ex: depressed mice Family Studies Correlates degree of genetic overlap among family members with similarity in trait If trait is highly heritable, those more closely related should be more similar. Problem: Members of a family share elements of the environment—confounds genetic with environmental influences Thus, family studies never definitive Twin Studies Estimates heritability by seeing if MZ twins are more similar than DZ twins Adoption Studies Positive correlations on traits between adopted kids and parents - environmental influence Positive correlations between adopted children and genetic parents - genetic influence Adoption studies avoid equal environments assumption Assumption adopted children and their (adoptive and genetic) parents are representative questionable Problem of selective placement of adopted children Design that combines strengths of twin and adoption studies = twins reared apart Shared Environmental Influences Aspects of family environment generally same for all Examples: # books in home, presence/absence of TV, quality and quantity of food, parents‘ values/attitudes, school, church If phenotype influenced solely by shared environment... MZ twins together: r = 1.00 DZ twins together: r = 1.00 Sibs together: r = 1.00 Non-shared Environmental Influences Ex: treated differently by parents, different friends, different teachers, some go to camp If trait influenced solely by non-shared environmental influences MZ twins together or apart: r=0 Same for DZ twins and for sibs Heritability of Traits For each FFM factor 35%-65% variability due to heritability For most traits, environment has major influence, but influence is primarily from non-shared For most traits, shared environment has little impact Example: Intelligence TexasAdoption Study (large, well controlled) Time 1, children‘s IQ significantly correlated with both bio mom (.23) and adoptive mom (.13) Time 2, children‘s IQ significantly correlated only with bio mother (.26). Other Research on Intelligence Near 0 correlations between biologically unrelated siblings Twin data MZ reared together r = .76 MZ reared apart r = .77 DZ reared together r = .22 DZ reared apart r = .32 Intelligence and Personality Compared Heritability higher for IQ than personality Example: Correlations for MZ twins are higher for IQ (.76) than personality (.50) Shared family environment not an important influence on either IQ or personality Epigenetics Study of heritable changes in gene function that occur without change in DNA sequence Regulation and Motivation: Self-Determination Theory Why motivation?  We want to know what drives people, and how people differ in this regard  Psychodynamic theories are essentially motivational The Humanistic Tradition in Psychology:  Reaction to reductionism of behaviourism and pessimism of psychodynamics  View individual as active system with an inherent propensity for growth and the resolution of psychological inconsistencies  Optimal functioning allows both increasing complexity and integration Key Humanists:  Abraham Maslow: Pyramid of needs. His idea was that whatever needs the person is at, that does will be the motivation.  Carl Rogers: unconditional positive regard; being accepting of people…not necessarily excepting the behaviour, just the person. SDT (self-determination theory) rooted in: -Humanistic tradition: emphasizes responsibility, growth -Actualizing tendency: motive to actualize growth and bring about positive change -he Fundamental Psychological Needs:  Relatedness: The need to feel close to others and emotionally secure in ones relationships; the sense that significant others care about ones well-being.  Competence: feeling that you can reliably produce desired outcomes and or avoid negative ones. This requires: understanding of the relationship btw behaviour and its consequences (outcomes expectations) and you have to feel you are
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